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Library

Below is the visual library for all the books I have summarized
To access the searchable library, click here

                                                         9780943045092-us-300  jewel-book-cover-357f955151cf194549275a2106e6f18e7ba5313706ac343769e9da3e0c9e724b 517loszzml-_sx335_bo1204203200_  capture 51p5t5cw4tl-_sx302_bo1204203200_  2632830 51af4jqgawl-_sy344_bo1204203200_ 41uty3mqrvl-_sx319_bo1204203200_ 51lnqvt3ol-_sx328_bo1204203200_ disneywar 411pfl4nmzl-_sy344_bo1204203200_ 41dsslntrl-_sx316_bo1204203200_ 51qqnglcidl-_sx318_bo1204203200_ 51pna4itnjl-_sx334_bo1204203200_ 51j0aco1hol-_sx317_bo1204203200_ 41dkjoqvu-l-_sx321_bo1204203200_ 71zpp045ywl 6190ig5x2rl-_sx331_bo1204203200_ 51iwrjcuw6l-_sy344_bo1204203200_ 41ozgec8e6l-_sx331_bo1204203200_ 3 sync bak 51NNRZBJ+sL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51zvuHPCgoL._SX327_BO1,204,203,200_ les-schwab-pride-in-performance-keep-it-going-19 0060916575-01-_sx200_sclzzzzzzz_1 510aKu0sPTL._SX299_BO1,204,203,200_ 41KY2u4d4ZL._SX332_BO1,204,203,200_1995421all_i_want_to_know41TGRwvg4YL._SX313_BO1,204,203,200_  deep-work-cal-newport  16248196  51N7s0z8kXL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 174713 Washington_A_Life_book_cover Power vs Force Softcover 510aKu0sPTL 41-eYMXLKqL._SX326_BO1,204,203,200_  41ZDNyKoHlL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 9780805052534 16130 517oIyvrNDL 13533740 41rJVsU7tJL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ download md184556324162688773851a9rND+uPL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 513dRdOldWL._SX329_BO1204203200_ 5143bEJRfqL._SX322_BO1,204,203,200_ 9780300216974 heroes-of-history-9780743235945_hr{488DB970-C6F6-4E88-AE18-11A93B255D66}Img400 41cmM6UedGL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ 41ElRO9ypBL._SX319_BO1,204,203,200_ 41jeohotvgL._SX258_BO1,204,203,200_ 41qKdrO4wnL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51zp+qPAe-L._SX258_BO1,204,203,200_ 511yBt6KhlL._SX351_BO1,204,203,200_ 812rexUR0rL The_Power_Broker_book_cover 41jFVZL72YL._SX336_BO1,204,203,200_ 41JvQj9sJAL._SX304_BO1,204,203,200_ 41VatwrWCeL._SX325_BO1,204,203,200_ 51dLDq5mkcL._SX320_BO1,204,203,200_ 51gN-yGw5oL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51Mt5H5lX2L._SX322_BO1,204,203,200_51YHqfdHJeL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ 81aGCwitXcL 516qbIR3suL._SX333_BO1,204,203,200_ 1305 LoyaltyEffectRevCover 516pEhuhDlL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_  41m0N7IIcsL 41rfAKBZVuL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51WnDA3RrUL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51YE689GC7L._SX302_BO1,204,203,200_ 4144JvvbfkL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 5486 cover225x225  the-silo-effect-9781451644739_hr  51DWYZY76QL._SX321_BO1,204,203,200_41+nfGp2AgL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 41lz22fodhL._AC_UL320_SR212,320_ 41WrIQaCTBL 41Z3XNXTcHL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51-j173j-LL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51jWkjTVbBL._SX330_BO1,204,203,200_ 51l6k9k4HsL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ 51pBocD9LPL._SX322_BO1,204,203,200_  Beyond-Training-Cover  cb6ef9e8fa38798e99972aaef7cdcc4d  david-goliath  FinalCover2 TheGraveyardBook_Hardcover What_do_you_care_what_other_people_thinkGEB Lindbergh The Innovators Obstacle is the Way Body by Science Bridgewater Education of a Value Investor The Loser's Game The Prince remains-of-the-day   Stroke of Insight   This is WaterBirmingham Jail  Lolita   Letters from a Self Made Merchant Peter the Great  Antifragile  Think and Grow Rich 48 Laws of Power What the Most Successful To Kill a Mockingbird I and Thou Influence  Manuscripts found in Accra  Ben Franklin Measure Your Life  How to Read a Book   The Small Cap Advantage My Own Life  Buddha Standard Time Decoded Checklist Manifesto The Outsiders Seeking Wisdom Bold Buddha Brain 10 Happier Cyrus the Great Hedonistic Imperative The Winner's Game Diary of Soren Adultery  Where are the customers yachts Education of a Coach Zen in the Art of Archery Moral Sayings of Publius Art of Stillness 51lPZw1WaOL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51r0fm0Y82L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ Killing Kennedy 5 Rules Brave New World Common Sense Investing The Little Book That Builds Wealth Never Eat Alone  Warrior Within  Poor Charlie's Almanack Killing Lincoln Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy A New Earth Tao Teh Ching Hurricane Startup of You Essentialism innoutAmerican Gods Do the Work Future of the Mind How to Love The Luck Factor Radical Acceptance   Nudge Eleven Rings The Hard Thing About Hard Things 33 strategies delivering happiness good to great monk and philosopher on china one click power of full story of philosophy thinking big way we're working zen and art 41z+F+i4C2L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51cvElYU7WL._SX311_BO1,204,203,200_ 51fN0mD37nL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51nPvo5Su3L._SX314_BO1,204,203,200_ 51OVTLXoJ+L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 61zkSQ8mjbL 81fncUPB6cL 518PbRACTQL 17859574 a curious mind Brain-That-Changes-Itself George-True-North-Authentic  power thebrainswayofhealingCapture 41ckYWIZtNL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 41HVo-Vf+zL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 41xs4vbcTPL._SX327_BO1,204,203,200_ 51BWHwWGCoL 51jCcKixK1L 51NcUB2HTxL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51NL4ze5EkL._SX332_BO1,204,203,200_ 51o2zBoDItL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 71tHnQXwJtL 514Y9hUYhRL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 519MS8HD0CL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_  1152-2 0399139435 41SNnGFamQL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_   51EOw3BYhrL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51fIjlYbsVL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ 51g8CrvBr8L._SX384_BO1,204,203,200_ 51pmlYf63+L._SX324_BO1,204,203,200_ 51T7HIMnjvL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51y+hZEulnL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ Fooled_by_Randomness_Paperback  Steve_Jobs_by_Walter_Isaacson the-fountainhead  tumblr_mzf8b0ZtUv1tq3nx5o1_1280  WceGgDUNlCA8RPHOz66AbHHs4RI12Vqg+OoBRGBrKx2plCphEkAr3aizNSRpuGHkIoDZcS4gLRs3LNNbucM2tzHjr1b6gOv!JK2gG4iMspVQ5iDKyCBWtzAWMsmQ+7PK41cpg1ESArL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 41OLNqCiM0L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 41ujSlRdt3L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51dOQ2ytN-L._SX374_BO1,204,203,200_  51mF+0T9o5L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_  51oHuRxOgIL._SX327_BO1,204,203,200_ 51q71sE7c5L._SX329_BO1,204,203,200_ 51xwPegEzlL._SX333_BO1,204,203,200_ 51Z6PrTDb4L._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ 413fr2eoPPL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 416qS30-lQL._SX355_BO1,204,203,200_ 830 23289992 Organized-Mind 9900241KHCQnx1EL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ 51aUygppA+L._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ 51cx5AfHpZL._SX337_BO1,204,203,200_ 51ETE8NqvcL._SX330_BO1,204,203,200_ 51kbKLCazgL._SX327_BO1,204,203,200_ 51XkLHJz++L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 71ahJkud8uL 71X3Y9yRtlL 81wBzBcSclL 857333 littlebets  prophet-cover_1_op_397x548 Screen-Shot-2015-09-14-at-2.22.25-PMreagan-151fc0+DDh9L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51iuMfmHHHL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 51tkKRzS5YL._SX329_BO1,204,203,200_ 51xrAg9mceL._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ FINDING-ULTRA-COVER-FINAL1  TheBoysintheBoat9780812993257 How_We_Decide_cover  OmnivoresDilemma_full  brothers k Happiness-Hypothesis unbroken-crjpg-ce0987f837463333  mans_search_for_meaning  simplicity  9781571745712 81B9+kACYLL BotanyofDesire_full 300x300 cn_image.size.swerve-book rise of superman  year-without-pants-752x1128  getting to yes 51V38NLW5zL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ TheIntelligentInvestor 51XcaFJirNL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ Jesus  BP Diet  Zorba_book Flowers for Algernon  1776 Auto of Black Hawk Genghis Khan Making Onward God Delusion Moonwalking_with_einstein Stroke of Insight Einstein Isaacson Siddhartha Titan fooling super brain Lila Meditations Fahrenheit 451  On the Road   Cooked On the Shortness of Life What every body is saying Aleph Animal Farm Sports Gene Love WinsBorn to Run  Emotional Intelligence Cool Tools Sun also rises Inutition Pumps  Moby Dick  Free to Choose  Power of Positive Thinking Experiments with Truth Vagabonding Slaughterhouse Five Aristotle in Outline the social animal_3.indd Cat's Cradle Thinking Fast and Slow  The Alchemist  Walden  Art of War  The Charisma Myth  Flatland  Mr. Feynman Money master the game 51qwpkjNP7L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_  7126 41ry6MoUc3L._SX331_BO1,204,203,200_ 51JNMx5G3iL._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_Berkshire 51K28NKVF3L._SY344_BO1,204,203,200_ 1984-by-opallynn-d4lnuoh 6596 17184 cover2 cvr9781451695182_9781451695182_hr Mastery_Cover movieposter PicofDorianGray-728143 Rye_catcher subliminal_seduction  TheJungleSinclair  The-Richest-Man-In-Babylon-George-Clason

 

On Platforms

I spent a couple months reading deliberately on platforms and have attempted to make a distilled “teacher’s reference guide” or cheat sheet which (hopefully) describes this powerful concept and their growing importance in today’s economy in a fun, clear and concise manner.

On Platforms

*This is clearly my amateur attempt which I’m sure has many points that experts would refute or disapprove of.  I will continue to iterate, add to and improve this document over time but hope the main message is well received.

Pareto Spring Cleaning

To be conducted every 6 months or so in order to help you lock in and remove unwanted distractions…

 

Pareto Spring Cleaning
  1. What 20% of sources are causing 80% of my problems?
  2. What 20% of sources are resulting in 80% of my desired outcomes?
  3. If I had a heart attack and had to work 2 hour per day, what would I do?
  4. If I had a gun to my head and had to stop doing 3 time consuming activities, what would I remove?
  5. What are the top 2 activities that I engage in “for activity’s sake”? – to feel productive?

Flight of the Buffalo: Soaring to Excellence, Learning to Let Employees Lead by Ralph Stayer and James Belasco

Summary
  1. All leaders face a challenge of leadership. The old models and paradigms no longer work. How leaders develop, and live a new model of leadership, is and will be the critical success factor for most every business. What leaders really want in the organization is a group of responsible, interdependent workers, similar to a flock of geese. I could see the geese flying in their “V” formation, the leadership changing frequently, with different geese taking the lead. I saw every goose being responsible for getting itself to wherever the gaggle was going, changing roles whenever necessary, alternating as a leader, a follower, or a scout. And when the task changed, the geese would be responsible for changing the structure of the group to accommodate, similar to the geese that fly in a “V” but land in waves. I could see each goose being a leader. Crafted in the crucible of realtime leadership experience, that paradigm is built around the following leadership principles: • Leaders transfer ownership for work to those who execute the work. • Leaders create the environment for ownership where each person wants to be responsible. • Leaders coach the development of personal capabilities. • Leaders learn fast themselves and encourage others also to learn quickly.
  2. PS – a lot of kindle highlights here but there are a lot of gems. Worth reading the book in its entirety
Key Takeaways
  1. “They don’t care how much you know, until they know how much you care about them.”
  2. I learned that how you say things is often as important as what you say.
  3. Ken Blanchard, who taught me to concentrate on making the pie bigger not on how to get the biggest slice.
  4. I discovered that I as the leader had to change first, before I could get anyone else to change.
  5. Partnerships require advance thought about the impact of any action on the other person. That’s difficult, particularly if you guess wrong.
  6. I had to learn how to listen and really hear. I had to learn to work with others and trust them. I had to learn to appreciate their contributions as much as or more than my own. I had to learn the value of learning and how to systematically accomplish it.
  7. I know it is easy to talk about being different. It is a lot harder to be different.
  8. “In most situations I am the problem.” My mentalities, my pictures, my expectations, form the biggest obstacle to my company’s success. Understanding that I am the problem allowed me to learn how to become the solution.
  9. Again and again I came back to the following insights:
    1. In most instances “I am the problem.” My desire to be the head buffalo, my wanting to rescue people, my previous success, all got in the way of successfully handling the current situation. Nothing constructive happened until I recognized me as the obstacle and changed my behavior.
    2. The customer is the boss, not the internal organizational boss. For too long I insisted that the person in the corner office had to be served first, with data, with deference, with swift response to requests. We didn’t make the progress I knew we had to make until we started serving the customer first.
    3. Think strategically. I used to begin with what we could be and then manage forward. We struggled to make inches of progress and usually finished out of the money. It wasn’t until I began with what we must be for customers and managed backward from that, that we won gold medals.
    4. Practice the intellectual capitalism leadership style. Create the conditions where the intellectual capital holders assume responsibility for delighting their customers. Everyone must be a leader before there’s effective leadership in the new organization.
    5. Leading is learning. I languished until I realized that learning faster was the key to my survival. Maximizing everyone’s learning is the key to my organization’s success. My organization didn’t soar until everyone became an avid learner.
  10. What do I know that just isn’t so?
  11. The awful truth about leadership—each person must write his or her own personal cookbook.
  12. Management’s job was to establish the conditions under which performance served both the company’s and the individual’s best interests.
  13. This became a self-fulfilling prophecy—the less I expected of my people, the less they delivered.
  14. Now I know that I must empower people for the new level of performance—not order it. The best way to empower people is to ask: What am I doing or not doing, as a leader, that prevents them from assuming responsibility and performing at the new level?
  15. Don’t stop with vision. Vision alone is no solution. Everything is execution.
  16. I also came to realize that my first reaction is usually wrong.
  17. People Rise to the Challenge—When It Is Their Challenge
    1. NOTE: Must make your idea their idea
  18. Being a leader requires continual learning.
  19. See leadership as a personal, emotional journey. Understand it happens in your gut before it happens in your or anybody else’s head.
  20. Leaders Add Value by Helping People Feel Powerful Rather than Helpless The leader is powerful when he/she figures out how to achieve what needs to be done. People are very different in organizations led by leaders who feel they know how to do what needs to be done. They feel powerful in having the control and influence necessary to do whatever it takes to get the job done. They see themselves as the instruments of their own destiny. They are connected to the organization’s success and failures because they know they are responsible for it. They are all working to achieve a common vision.
  21. I learned to change from being a victim to being responsible by asking myself, “What am I doing or not doing that causes the situation I don’t like?” Restating the problem into factors that I control helps me feel, and be, powerful.
  22. It is easier to complain about what we don’t have than to give up what we do have.
  23. When I asked him why he hadn’t mentioned his need to me several years earlier, his answer was classic. “You never asked what we needed. You were so busy selling your solution that you didn’t hear what we wanted.”
  24. The principal tools of production today are not machinery and equipment. Neither is it solely the brainpower of the managerial leadership. Rather, the tools of production are the ideas and talents (the intellectual capital) of the scientist, the machinist, and the programmer. Therefore, the possessors of the intellectual tools of production, the people, will come to exercise effective power.
  25. We’ve all grown up learning to follow authority: first our parents, then our teachers, and then our bosses. The first and probably most often reinforced lesson we learn is “Do as you are told by the person in charge.” Now, however, the “person in charge” is the person who formally reports to you. In this topsy-turvy world, as a leader you actually work for the people who work for you. In the past, as leaders we planned products, budgets, facilities—the concrete financial aspects of the business. The assumption was that the people would go along with the plan. I learned the hard way that assumption was no longer safe. In addition, I must plan for the mind-sets and mentalities of the people, if I want the financial plan to work. Our leadership tools haven’t changed significantly, but the focus of their use has. The primary purpose of strategic planning is not to strategically plan for the future, although that’s an important purpose of the exercise. It is primarily to develop the strategic management mind-set in each and every individual in the organization. The purpose of the process is not only to produce a plan. It is to produce a plan that will be owned and understood by the people who have to execute it. I discovered that the leader has a new set of responsibilities. The leader, at every level in the organization, must strive to implement these four principles: 1. Transfer ownership for work to those who execute the work. 2. Create the environment for ownership where each person wants to be responsible for his/her own performance. a. Paint a clear picture of great performance for the organization and each person. b. Focus individuals on the few factors that create great performance. c. Develop the desire for each person to own—be responsible for—his/her own great performance. d. Align organization systems and structures that send a clear message as to what is necessary for great performance for the individual and the organization. e. Engage individuals—their hearts and minds, as well as their hands—in the business of the business. f. Energize individuals around the focus of the business. 3. Coach the development of individual capability and competence. 4. Learn faster. a. Learn themselves. b. Create the conditions under which every person in the organization is challenged to continually learn faster.
  26. I’ve learned that my job is to work hard to understand what it takes to (1) win today and (2) create the circumstances where I can win tomorrow.
  27. QUESTION: What do I have to learn to lead in this new age? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Learn the new paradigm today—and get ready to learn a new one tomorrow.
  28. Helping people regain their own authority and power to respond appropriately in work and life is a leadership skill of the highest order.
  29. The Person Doing the Work Must Own the Responsibility
  30. For people to want to own the responsibility, and stop being victims, I had to change my behavior. I loved rescuing people. I loved solving problems. The result? People were lined up waiting to be rescued. People kept bringing me problems to solve. My people did just what I wanted them to do. If I wanted to play head buffalo, they were more than willing to play buffalo herd member. When I realized that rescuing people and solving problems is a permanent job, I understood the error of my thinking. People would never learn to take care of themselves because I was always there to take care of them. People would never learn to solve their own problems because I was there to solve them for them. I’d take this job with me to the grave. Suddenly, the overwhelming task didn’t seem as attractive as it once had. As Rosa Parks was too tired to move to the back of the Birmingham bus and thus started a revolution, so did my weariness start a revolution in my company. If I was going to have a gaggle of geese, I realized, then I’d have to stop playing head buffalo.
  31. QUESTION: How can I get people to do it right the first time? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: The person who does the job must own the responsibility for doing it correctly.
  32. As the leader of my organization I am responsible for creating the environment that enables each person to assume responsibility for his or her own performance. The people own the responsibility for delivering great performance. I am responsible for creating the environment where this ownership takes place.
  33. If You Want Ownership Behavior, Pay for It
  34. All of my leadership efforts directed toward transferring the ownership paid off. Despite the external chaos, the people were able to keep focused on delivering great performance for their customers.
  35. QUESTION: Am I creating owners or dependents? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: If you want them to act like it’s their business, make it their business.
  36. I’ve learned that coaching is about providing support and guidance. Coaching is very person-centered. Great coaches know that teams with the best skills and competencies have the highest winning percentages. The primary purpose of coaching is to develop the individual’s skills and competencies. A coach helps you do what you know you must do!
  37. My football coach put it best. He told me, “You didn’t come to this university to learn how to play football. You came here to learn how to be a better person. So this season you’ll learn to be a better person by learning how to be a better football player.”
  38. I learned that great coaches did more than ask questions and not give answers. Great coaches had to provide guidance so people could find the “right” answer. So I sought to provide more guidance.
  39. One day it finally hit me: The real expert in great performance is the customer. Everything begins with delighting the customer. That’s why every one of our job descriptions begins with this statement: “The things I do to get and keep customers are …” Things really improved when I modified my focus to ask, “From the customer’s point of view, what is great performance?” The coachees finally had a way to get their questions answered from the true expert in what they had to do. They felt more focused and secure.
  40. In the best of all worlds, what is great performance for your customers?
  41. What do you want to achieve in the next two to three years?
  42. How will you measure your performance?
  43. Measurement is the motivator for improvement. Resist the temptation to define the measurements for the person. Make certain that he or she owns that responsibility. Wrestling with the “How will I know when I do it?” question helps the individual learn about what he or she really wants to accomplish. It is not uncommon to find that clarifying measurements often changes the objective. The expert in answering this question is often not the individual alone, but the individual in conjunction with his/her customer. Again, this drives the individual back to discussions with the customer.
  44. What things do you need to learn in order to reach your goals?
  45. What work experiences do you need to help you learn what you need to achieve your goals?
  46. Learning is something you do, not something you are told. People don’t learn chess by watching. They need to begin playing in order to learn the game. As a coach you need to be able to see all the decisions, problems, and actions that need to be done as opportunities for yourself and others to learn and grow.
  47. QUESTION: Is the person becoming more capable? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Focus on developing the person, not the scoreboard.
  48. I learned the hard way that leaders learn fast—or they don’t complete the journey. Leaders need to keep on learning. The world changes so fast that we need to keep learning new things so we can cope. The rapid pace of change drives the need for continual learning.
  49. Speed is essential. The gold medal goes to the swiftest. Rapid change requires rapid learning. Success has always depended upon learning, but in the past the change was slower, so we could take longer to learn. As the pace of change quickens, the race belongs to the swiftest learner.
  50. Success is a valuable teacher, providing you don’t get lulled into complacency by her succulent fruits. I’ve learned that what got me to where I am will not get me to where I need to go.
  51. QUESTION: Am I learning fast enough? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: It’s never fast enough.
  52. The Leading the Journey model is based on four leadership activities: 1. Determining focus and direction 2. Removing the obstacles 3. Developing ownership 4. Stimulating self-directed action
  53. There are two kinds of obstacles: those that are found in the systems, structures, and practices, and those that are found in the mind-sets of the people.
  54. I learned that system/structure factors produced these troubling mind-sets. I learned to focus my efforts on the context obstacles, so I can affect the powerful determinants of behavior.
  55. Newton discovered the law of gravity. He was correct, except in one situation. Everything does flow downhill. Except in an organization, where ownership flows uphill. We call it upward delegation. The result? Managers own all the wrong problems.
    1. NOTE: except if you invert the hierarchy pyramid as it should be with the leadership on the bottom acting as servants
  56. Vision is the beginning point for leading the journey. Vision focuses. Vision inspires. Without a vision, the people perish. Vision is our alarm clock in the morning, our caffeine in the evening. Vision touches the heart. It becomes the criterion against which all behavior is measured. Vision becomes the glasses that tightly focus all of our sights and actions on that which we want to be tomorrow—not
  57. Vision is the most sought-after executive characteristic.
  58. More important, vision paints a picture of what your organization must be if it is to survive. The essence of executive vision is saying, “Here’s where we have to go, and here’s a general road map for how we will get there.”
  59. We must manage backward from the future, rather than forward from the present.
  60. Vision flows from extensive contact with customers and suppliers. It does not flow from some mystical insight into the future gained by consulting one’s gut (no matter how golden) or one’s astrologer. There’s no substitute for direct feedback from the people who make the marketplace.
  61. “In the best of all worlds, from the customer’s perspective, what is great performance?”
  62. “Wealth, like happiness, is never attained when sought after directly. It always comes as a by-product of providing a useful service.”
  63. Clarity is power. Clarity motivates people to use the vision as a criterion to evaluate their actions. People ask, “Does my action support the vision?” The answer must be clear. Vision provides the tight focus on thinking strategically. It insists that everyone direct his or her energies toward creating the tomorrow we want. Brevity helps. Use a short, simple, easy-to-understand statement of your vision to gain clarity and empower its use as a decisional criterion.
  64. People need to see the personal benefit from their vision of great performance.
  65. Actions must reflect the vision. I learned that the leader must live the vision, or no one else will. People watch what we do as leaders and follow. They notice most what we do, not what we say. They follow most what we do, not what we say.
  66. of our definitions of leadership is to “get people to do the right things.” The right things are everything that must be done to deliver great performance from the customer’s point of view.
  67. Focus everyone in your company on owning the responsibility to find out what his or her customers want and then on consistently delivering that great performance.
  68. The question asks about the product from the supplier’s point of view. What a waste! It doesn’t matter what the supplier thinks he’s selling. It only matters what the customer believes he’s buying.
  69. In Leading the Journey we need a destination, and there’s no better destination than the customer’s location.
  70. Location is more than just a geographic spot. I learned the hard way that it is also a state of mind.
  71. The easiest and most direct way to find out where the customers’ heads are is to find out from the customers themselves.
  72. Leaders Design Systems and Structures That Help Keep the Focus on the Location
  73. Notice the partnership approach. Notice the shift in emphasis from what I have in my bag (or can get from my factory) to what the customer needs. My job now is not to sell my products. It’s to help the customer achieve his/her goals.
  74. What happens before a customer call will often determine what happens during the call and after that call. We’ve learned to prepare the ground before we attempt to plant the seed. We take three significant preparation steps before every partnership interview. First, we search the data bank of the information service to which we subscribe for significant trends, developments, and issues in the industry and the company. We identify a few significant issues to serve as a launching pad for discussion and the tangible demonstration of our interest in and knowledge about their business. We know we’ve succeeded when we hear such statements as “We didn’t know that.” Or “How did you find that out?” We intend to bring substantive and, we hope, new information to the interview. Second, we plumb our own internal data base to identify the personal interests and issues of the people with whom we’ll be talking. We gather and track personal information about all customers. Our data base contains such important data as birthdays, anniversaries, names of family members, favorite sports, colors, vacation spots, and other personal information. We shape what we present and how we present it to meet the personal preferences of the listener. Third, we call in advance to review the purpose and agenda for the meeting. We ask customers what they want to accomplish in the meeting and how they will know when they’ve achieved it. We inquire about their preparation and what preparation they expect from us. We clarify expectations and get on the same wavelength. No surprises or blindsides.
  75. We begin by working to understand the customer’s business. We pose a version of the following general directive: • Tell me about your activity. We follow up with these more specific questions: • What are the few keys to success in your unit? • What is your unit’s advantage in the marketplace (why do customers buy from you?), and how do you contribute to that advantage? • What is great ICBIH (I can’t believe it’s happening) performance for your unit, and for yourself, for the coming year?
  76. What current/future developments will change the way you and your unit do business? We follow with a subset of more specific questions, such as: • What developments are impacting both your department’s activities and the company’s? • What do you see coming in the future that will change the way you and your company do business? • What do you and your unit plan to do to prepare for these coming events so you are ready before they occur?
  77. What are the biggest problems you face? We follow with a specific question: • What prevents you from being a great performer?
  78. How can we help you? We follow up with the more specific questions: • How can we help you be a great performer today? • How can we help you remove the obstacles that prevent you from being a great performer today? • How can we help you prepare to be a great performer in the future?
  79. Based on the above, how would you define great performance for me in the coming year that will best contribute to your great performance?
  80. What would I have to do this week to earn a rating from you of 10 out of 10 for perfect contribution to your great performance?
  81. QUESTION: Are you a supplier or a partner? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Sit with the customer, or don’t get in the door.
  82. Anticipate Problems Rather than Solve Them
  83. What will it take to have a profitable textile business? 2. What will it take to never be surprised again?
  84. most new developments occur from outside an industry.
  85. I need to help people look for developments outside our current fields, in parallel fields that pose both threats and opportunities to the areas in which we currently function.
  86. I established a system called scan, clip, and review. We borrowed it from John Naisbitt and from the CIA. In academic circles it’s called content analysis. It’s simple and works like this: Everyone in the company scans ten periodicals he or she does not normally read each month. These range from highly technical journals to such popular periodicals as Prevention, Rolling Stone, andMother Jones Good Earth Journal. Each person clips all articles he or she thinks are interesting regarding future trends and puts them in a file folder. People clip advertisements, articles, opinion letters, anything they think will have any potential impact on the business in the future, no matter how farfetched it may seem at the time. The entire company is divided into seven-person interdisciplinary, interdepartmental “review cells.” Monthly, people circulate their file folders of clipped articles to the other members of their review cell, so that everyone reviews the clippings in all seven file folders. Quarterly, the seven members of the review cell meet and discuss the important trends they noticed in the clipped material they reviewed. The discussion is built around three questions: 1. What is the future event that will have the greatest impact on our business? 2. What will happen when that event happens? 3. What can we do now to prepare for that event? We use a process called a future wheel, which is shared throughout the company. Every six months, the trends are reviewed and appropriate changes in strategy are made.
    1. NOTE: fascinating. something similar at glenair?
  87. We get lots of ideas. Imagine having seven hundred people all scanning, clipping, and reviewing! We don’t get blindsided anymore. We hear the footsteps. Our customers come to us to find out what’s coming. We get lots of discussion about appropriate actions. And we get lots of commitment to a future course of action once the discussions are done.
  88. I learned that successful leaders ask the following thinking-strategically questions: • What do we really want to create for our customers? • What will it take to create what we want?
  89. Thinking incrementally is an American disease. We learned it early in life. Our parents were always admonishing us, “Try a little harder. You’re almost there. Just a little bit more.” The mentality was reinforced in the classroom: “Eighty-eight percent is almost an A. Study just a little bit more and I’m certain that you can get it.”
  90. It’s not that thinking incrementally is bad. It’s just that in that thought process you begin from where you are now and add a little more to it. The view from your current position includes the limitations of all of your current assumptions, your current paradigms, your current prejudices. All of that baggage clouds your vision of what’s possible in the future.
  91. Thinking Strategically Manages Backward from the Future
  92. Leaders who engage in thinking strategically begin with where they want to go. Then they look backward from the future and ask, “What will it take to create that new tomorrow?” It’s the looking back from tomorrow that gives thinking strategically its power, because that perspective helps you escape the limitations of today’s situation.
  93. Begin with the End in Mind—the Federal Express Example Federal Express knows the importance of thinking strategically. They begin from the end state they want to create: “Absolutely, positively, it has to be there on time.” With that end state firmly in mind they ask the strategic-thinking question “What will it take to get it absolutely, positively there on time?”
  94. QUESTION: What will it take to create what I really want? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Ask for enough or you will get less than you need.
  95. I have found that too many people “settle” instead of reach. I’ve learned how expensive that can be. I also learned that my task in Leading the Journey is to help people focus high enough. I need to encourage individuals to “reach” for great performance for their customers, rather than “settle” for acceptable performance. Part of providing focus and direction to my organizations is to keep all the noses pointed straight up.
  96. Leaders must keep helping people prepare for the next match, rather than savoring the win from the last match.
  97. Dealing with customers provides a bear hug on reality.
  98. Getting better at delivering great performance for your customers is the only answer to the “How high is up?” question.
  99. Here are a few measures I’ve discovered are essential to any business. Without drowning in accounting details, get the following figures. Monitor them as vital signs of your organization’s financial health: 1. Track on a frequent (weekly and monthly) basis: • Cash on Hand and Projected Cash Flow. There are three essentials in any business: cash, cash, cash. All businesses are cash businesses. There are two ways to track cash. The first is using a funds flow analysis. There are many good ones available.
  100. ExpensesOrders. Increasing expenses often go hand in hand with increasing orders. But often, expenses continue to increase after sales level out. Monitoring this ratio of current expenses to current orders (which will be future sales) will ring an early-warning bell and help you prevent expense inflation and profit deterioration. The ratio also tells you when you can expect future cash problems.
  101. Receivables. Nothing is more insidious than not collecting the cash that customers owe you.
  102. Sales ÷ Working Capital. This critical ratio shows the stretch in your working capital. (Working capital is current assets—cash and accounts receivable—minus current liabilities.) Working capital supports sales. With too little working capital, you grow yourself to bankruptcy. Typically, each dollar in working capital supports eight dollars in sales. When your ratio is below 5:1, you are likely not using your cash well and are not earning good enough margins. When your ratio exceeds 15:1, you may be technically bankrupt.
  103. Track on a less frequent (semiannual/annual) basis (primarily for the banker): • Current Ratio (Current assets ÷ current liabilities). This short-term solvency ratio tells you (and your banker) whether you have the short-term funds to pay your short-term liabilities. Ratios of 2:1 are considered good. That means there are two dollars in current assets for every one dollar of current liabilities. When the ratio falls below 1.5:1, the bankers get nervous. When it falls below 1:1, they start looking at pulling the line.
  104. You need to really know your costs. How? Use a real-time direct costing system. Assign every penny you spend to a product, a customer, a function.
  105. One of the biggest fallacies going around is that customer service doesn’t cost, it pays. The cost of serving some customers can pay you right to the bankruptcy court.
  106. The key to financial health is getting everyone to make financial decisions as if they were spending their own money out of their own checkbook. Too many people spend a “budget” of someone else’s money. Witness the spending sprees at the end of each year.
  107. Love your enemy as your best friend. Enemies are very valuable. They help you organize and focus on what must be done. Part of the leader’s job is to use competitors’ actions as a way to focus individuals on great performance for their customers.
  108. Competitors easily become the greater enemy against which we can all rally. Why fight with the person in the next office when there’s someone outside the gates looking to destroy us all? In most organizations, the people may not agree on much among themselves except that they all dislike the competitor. I learned to use my competitors as a weapon to keep everyone in my organization, including myself, from getting complacent. I learned to use the competitor as a rallying point to focus everyone on great performance, and continuously raise the standards. One of the leader’s best friends, therefore, is the competitor who’s planning to steal your lunch.
  109. You can find out about your competitors without resorting to unethical or illegal means. Competitors will tell you if you just ask. Competitors’ salespeople love to brag about “conquests.” Let them, and pay attention when they do. Clipping services can collect trade and other news. Often research and technical journals tip off a competitor’s plans long before any specific product announcement. Many companies “test” customer response to proposed products. Often your current customers, who are their potential customers, are included. Stay in touch with them to find out what competitors are planning.
  110. As the leader I work to keep the competitor clearly in the forefront of everyone’s thinking.
  111. Watch Your Neighbors. Customers and Suppliers Can Become Competitors. Beware of Left Field
  112. Analyze your position vis-á-vis your competitors. Every marketplace player—you and your competitors—has strengths and weaknesses. Identify your strengths and weaknesses compared with your competitors. Understand your current market situation, and you improve the chances of your success.
  113. Examine your principal competitors and their current strategies. Identify your standing vis-à-vis those competitors from your customers’ perspective in terms of: 1. Cost structure: Do you have higher or lower costs than your competitors? Check out such things as comparable salaries, locations, cars, number of employees, competing bids. 2. Differentiated value of the product/service you provide: How do your customers see the value of the product/service you provide in comparison with your competitors? How would your competitors’ customers answer this question? 3. Price: How do you compare with your competition on price? Are you lower priced, about the same, or higher priced than your competition? 4. Delivery: Do you deliver on time more or less frequently than your competitors do? What would your customers answer? What would your competitors’ customers answer? 5. Quality: How does your quality compare with your competitors’? How would your customers answer this question? How would your competitors’ customers answer this question? 6. After-sales support: How good are you at being there to solve customer problems after you’ve made the sale? How would your customers answer this question? How would your competitors’ customers answer this question about them?
  114. Most firms practice the cruelest form of deception—self-delusion. They continue to tell themselves that everything is all right, right up the steps of the bankruptcy court. The inward focus is responsible for more business failures than anything else. Above all, this is a leadership failure.
  115. See it from the customer’s point of view. Great products are great only when customers buy them.
  116. The report would be shared with everyone, answering four questions: 1. What are we doing right that we should continue? 2. What are we doing wrong that we should either stop or improve? 3. Who is our chief competitor for that customer’s business? 4. What do we have to do to win the customer’s business?
  117. I learned that building close relationships with customers is a tonic for arrogance.
  118. We won in the marketplace because we were willing to go the extra mile for our customers (witness the survey), and we had the guarantee.
  119. “How can I maximize both value for my customers and profit for myself?” The answer? Create value. Customers don’t buy price; they buy value. What is value? Like beauty, it is in the eye of the beholder. So I learned to ask my customers to tell me what value was for them. And guess what? They told me with clarity.
  120. “You never asked,” he said. “Your people were so busy selling me that they had no time left over to listen.” So much for being smarter than the customer. Without knowing what value is for customers, it’s impossible to deliver it consistently.
  121. Value Is Solving the Customer’s Problems
  122. Value Is Doing It Better than Anybody Else
  123. Choose the right customer problem on which to focus. What is the right problem? The right one is the one that drives the customer’s buying decision. Inevitably, there’s one overriding problem, the solution to which will encourage your customer to buy from you and not your competitor.
  124. QUESTION: Do our products and services stand out head and shoulders above our competition? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Stay tuned in to customers and do whatever it takes to create value for them.
  125. One of the most powerful value-added strategies I’ve discovered is to identify the most profitable niche we can successfully serve, and then dominate that niche.
  126. Find Niche Applications for Commodity Products Find the crack—the crevice—that piece of unfulfilled demand. That’s what successful niche players do.
  127. Using locals, who understand and can relate to the customers, is one way to ensure the customer focus to identify value-added strategies.
  128. Minimize Your Dependence on Any One Customer or Product
  129. I learned that niche players usually survive by following the “avoid the big guys” strategy.
  130. How do we do that in the face of such awesome foreign competition? It’s obvious! Pick a niche in which low-cost labor doesn’t count and where we can move faster than our competition.
  131. a niche player in a tough industry, we survive by avoiding competition. That’s good advice in any industry.
  132. customers once lost are hard to get back.
  133. The basic niche player’s strategies: • Avoid the big boys. • Be flexible. • Find upscale applications for commodity products. • Stay close to your customer. • Avoid dependence upon a few products and/or customers. Focus your people on these value-added strategies. That’s the way you Lead the Journey using the intellectual capitalism paradigm. QUESTION: What do my customers want that they are not now getting? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Niches are gold mines. Find them and start digging.
  134. Price competition almost always means that customers don’t see enough differentiation among products, so price is the only way to distinguish.
  135. Pictures Create Feelings—and That’s What Customers Really Buy
  136. The Product Name Must Paint the Picture
  137. Everything must contribute to creating the picture. Everything. The operant question must be “How does this activity or action contribute to the picture we want customers to have of our organization?” Each person needs to think strategically and then own the responsibility to do whatever it takes to please customers.
  138. If You Don’t Lose 20 Percent of Your Business on Price, Your Prices Aren’t High Enough
  139. He told me, “I learned years ago that the secret to success in my business was not winning most of the bids, but losing the ‘right ones. I only want to win the ones that I know I will do well on. I’m willing to walk away from business that is marginally profitable. I don’t need marginal business. I need the profit. I’ve learned that being the high bidder is the way to succeed.”
  140. Successful companies differentiate themselves by adding real value for their customers. Helping customers see the real value you bring marks the difference between high and low profits. The question is “What is real value from the customer’s perspective?”
  141. Our measurement of great performance was to have the highest selling price and the highest market share.
  142. The professor used the case to illustrate his point that price was an important determiner of value. Selling a Cadillac at Chevrolet prices would probably sell fewer Cadillacs, he said.
  143. QUESTION: Do your prices reflect your great performance? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: What your customers are willing to pay tells you what they—and you—think about your products.
  144. The new way to add value is through business partnerships.
  145. The New World Order: Partnership, Not Domination The giants have learned that it takes both size and flexibility to meet rapidly changing customer demands. Healthy smaller firms, surrounding the giant, provide the flexibility to focus and capitalize on the giant’s size.
  146. learned that unless both parties work as hard for the partner as they work for themselves, they are both doomed to fail.
  147. The win/win game not only involves finding partners “out there.” It also involves building win/win partnerships within the organization.
  148. Focus and direction allow your people to deliver great performance for your customers. Knowing the “right” direction is the first step. The second step is to identify and remove the obstacles that prevent you from achieving great performance.
  149. Focus on Those Obstacles You Control or Directly Influence
  150. Obstacles Come in Two Areas: Systems and Mind-sets While most of us are drawn to the mind-set obstacles of motivation, communication, and teamwork issues, the biggest obstacles are organizational obstacles, like the systems and structures. I’ve found that the systems and structures dramatically affect the mind-sets of everyone else.
  151. QUESTION: How can I identify and remove those obstacles that prevent great performance? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Ask your people what prevents their great performance. Get to work on those obstacles.
  152. Systems are the most powerful drivers of performance.
  153. Attitudes are shaped by the environment within which people function. The environment is made up of the systems and structures in the organization. Although I could not change attitudes directly, I could change them by changing the environment. I learned that incorrect attitudes are a symptom of incorrect systems, structures, and practices.
  154. Performance Management System How are the standards of performance determined in your organization? How does your current system compare to the following model? 1.Manager determines the overall parameters/objectives. Define the playing field.
  155. You as the leader establish the parameters, the overall objective, the vision. You need to articulate great performance standards for the overall organization. You need to be certain that everyone’s nose is pointed in the same direction. 2.Set standards between performers and customers. We need to ensure that standards are set between performers and their customers. Each performer must meet frequently (weekly) with his or her customers to agree on standards of great performance. Then the performer must meet with other performers to coordinate activities with them. The leadership job is to make certain that this standard setting and coordination take place on a regular basis. 3.Reduce the expectation to a specific, measurable number. What gets measured gets produced. For a long while I measured sales and wondered why there was so little profit. Everyone’s attention was focused on getting that order. Delivering it profitably, or selling it at a price that would make money, was always an afterthought. People love to be measured. But measure the “right” stuff. The right stuff is that which creates great performance for customers. The right stuff is what helps you keep learning. The right stuff is what helps you continuously improve. Do you have a performance management system where performers define, with customers, specific numeric standards of performance? Every machine operator, every janitor, every secretary, must know exactly what great performance is for their jobs. If your current system does not do that, you have a serious obstacle.
  156. Information System Does every person in your unit know how he or she is performing? At the end of every day? Every week? If people don’t know how well they are doing relative to some target, you can’t ever expect them to do it well. To back up your performance management system, you need an information system that tells every performer frequently how well he or she is doing in creating great performance for his/her customers.
  157. Makes performance visible to every…
  158. Real data in real time. The data must be real data. Not sanitized accounting/financial data. And it needs to be in real time. Real time means “Now!” We need an information system similar to that in the game of golf. How long…
  159. Based on continuing conversations between performers and customers. Customers are the best source of feedback on performance. The best information system structures-in continuing conversations between performers and customers. These two systems form a loop—the performance management system and the information system. Both rely upon a stream of performance-based conversations between…
  160. Reward System Unfortunately, I succumbed to the folly of rewarding “A” while hoping for “B.” In the past, my reward system focused on attendance. I paid people to show up and then worried why they didn’t perform. I learned that if I wanted quality, I had to reward quality. If I wanted service, I had to reward service. The performer is the best person to determine what needs to be rewarded, and what is an effective reward. Begin with the performer-customer established standards of great performance, the performer-customer established feedback mechanisms, and…
  161. Assure the consequences of behavior. Performance must have consequences. Performance must matter. It must be clear that “them that does it, get it, and them that don’t do it, don’t get it” or get a…
  162. Pay for results, not…
  163. Too many people are rewarded for working hard, rather then getting the “…
  164. Blend monetary rewards (such as gain sharing, profit sharing, onetime bonuses, merit increases) and nonmonetary rewards (such as recognition, promotion, job assignments, autonomy). We can find as many ways to reward people as there are people. We don’t suffer from a lack of ways to reward. We suffer from a lack of imagination in identifying what turns people on, and in ways to distribute rewards fairly and equitably. Many leaders wrestle with “equity” issues: “Is this reward system fair?” They also struggle with “motivation” concerns: “Will these rewards motivate the behavior we need?” Both of these concerns can be dealt with by involving performers in designing the reward systems. As long as leaders own the responsibility for designing reward systems, they will also own the responsibility for making them “fair” and “…
  165. Once a month money will be paid out to all that have achieved their Great Performance weekly goals.
    1. NOTE: goal gradient effect respected
  166. If you don’t expect, measure, and reward great performance, you’ll never get great performance. In short: • Does every person know at the start of every day what great performance is for him/her? • Does every person know at the end of every day if he/she has been a great performer? • During the day is everyone motivated to do whatever it takes to be a great performer because he/she knows that he/she will be rewarded on the basis of performance?
  167. Systems are powerful message carriers that too often prevent the achievement you want. Structures do also.
  168. Does your organization structure meet the following model? If not, you have structural obstacles that prevent your achieving great performance. 1. Decentralize decision making to the point of customer contact. Those closest to the customer should make the decisions about servicing that customer. When that isn’t the case, you get organizational “handoffs,” a major obstacle.
  169. Multidiscipline teams where everyone is present. Parkinson’s law was written based upon the absence of teams.
  170. Simplification of processes and procedures. The only things that grow automatically seem to be weeds—and administrative procedures. Stem administrative procedure growth by emphasizing continual simplification of processes and procedures. One organization eliminates every policy and procedure every year. Anyone wishing to continue a policy or procedure must reapply for it de nouveau. They call it zero-based administration. 4. Focus on one customer, one product, one product/market combination. Structure focuses people on serving a homogeneous collection of customers. This focus develops expertise in what customers want/need and facilitates a customer focus throughout the organization.
  171. Does your structure encourage the decentralization of decision making to the level of direct customer contact? Does it facilitate the use of multidiscipline teams to solve customer problems? Does it force continual simplification and focus?
  172. Measurement becomes one more way in which leaders focus the organization in the “right” direction, consistently providing great performance for customers. Measurement is a powerful leadership tool when the performers and customers establish the measures.
  173. People Who Know How Well They Are Doing Will Do Well People need measurements to excel.
  174. People want so much to measure their performance that if they aren’t given a way to do that, they will develop their own.
  175. Your operators must be the experts on your process, because they are the only ones who can control it.
  176. The only people who could ever produce great products were those who actually made them.
    1. NOTE: touching the medium
  177. Here is the plan they developed: The people write down every customer-driven change they make. They count the aggregate number and then categorize them to spot trends. When they see trends, they review the internal systems and structure to see if they are aligned with where the market is going. They discuss among themselves what it will take to do better. They measure how long it takes to make the improvements and spot the trends. They track it against past performance. Their plan works. We seem to be one or two jumps ahead of our competitors. Sure it’s difficult. But isn’t it worth it? What’s the alternative?
  178. GREAT PERFORMANCE FOR THE PRESIDENT 1. Coach of strategic thinking Measure: Number of helpful contributions I make to the strategic thinking of others. Indicated by member/customer evaluations of the president in the monthly surveys. A rating of 10 is expected. 2. Learning and growth Measure: Attainment of 100 percent of the president’s educational goals. 3. 100 percent of the people believe they own the right problem and are capable of handling it. Measure: As indicated by ownership comments on the weekly reports. 4. Coach of personal development. Facilitator of learning for everyone in the company. Measure: 100 percent of direct reports attain 100 percent of their educational goals and report complete satisfaction with their development. 100 percent of all employee-partners attain 100 percent of their educational goals and report complete satisfaction with their development. 5. Ensure that all transactions are characterized by caring and integrity. Measure: Measured by employee responses of being important, respected, valued, and cared about personally on the quarterly all-employee survey. Other indicators are number of personal messages exchanged, number of personal celebrations acknowledged.
  179. I discovered that when people perform better, they are happier. My experience is that everyone wants to excel. Everyone enjoys winning. Everyone loves being part of a winning team. Winning reinforces itself. Everyone takes pride in his/her accomplishments. That is why most everyone loves sports. Sports give instant feedback on performance. We all share a deep desire for feedback on our performance.
  180. QUESTION: Do all the people in your company know how well they’ve done before they go home every night? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: People perform what they measure—help the performers to measure the “right” stuff.
  181. It sounds so simple. Get the information to the people who use it. It’s common sense. Unfortunately, it’s not common practice.
    1. NOTE: touching the medium
  182. One of my biggest leadership tasks is to remove the obstacles to great performance. One of the biggest obstacles I encountered was this misdirection of information. The company dramatically improved when I clarified who needed what information.
  183. The past can’t be managed. It is already gone. I saw that I needed to help people manage the work they did today, not yesterday.
  184. the leader’s job isn’t to develop the information. Rather, the leader’s task is to focus the people who use the information, and help them develop the system to get them the information they need.
  185. Leading the Journey requires that I remove the obstacle of the misdirection of information. Inevitably, that means that the performers get more of the information they need to control and direct the organization in both the present and the future.
  186. QUESTION: Are you managing the past, the present, or the future? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Help the right people get the right information and they will do the right things.
  187. People obstacles are most often symptoms, not causes. Like Odysseus, we are pulled right to the rocks as we struggle to answer the siren song of people issues.
  188. The Best Way to Get Teamwork Is to Give the Team Work
  189. If I’ve learned anything in the last twelve years, it is that “I” can’t fix “them” until “I” fix “me” first. Then I must change the systems and structures to require teamwork. The obstacle isn’t simply a lack of teamwork. The obstacle is my leadership mentality, the actions that flow from it, and the systems and structures that prevent the teamwork.
  190. The president immediately got his executives together and they designed the “Improvement Audit” program. Three years later the program is going strong. Every division is visited twice a year by teams drawn from the other divisions. There’s been a direct savings of more than 21 percent, and the president told me, “I’ve never seen such teamwork.” Changing the audit and reward systems changed the mindsets, which changed the behavior.
  191. QUESTION: What systems are causing my people problems? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Change the systems to change the people.
  192. Until great performance is everyone’s responsibility, it will be no one’s.
  193. In today’s intellectual capitalism world, the performers must be responsible for their own performance. The success or failure of the business must rest with the individuals who possess the critical capital. The leader’s job is to determine the direction, remove the obstacles that prevent focus, and then get the intellectual capital holders to develop ownership for moving in that direction. From firsthand experience, I know how tough it is to achieve this mentality. I also know how necessary it is.
  194. QUESTION: Who’s in the best position to be responsible? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Get the right people to own the right responsibility.
  195. Again I found that the more I solved other people’s problems, the more problems they’d bring to me. I had worked myself into a fulltime “solve other people’s problems” job.
  196. My experience has taught me that the key to organizational success today is in getting the people to want to own the responsibility for their own performance.
  197. What is the problem? I ask because how you define the problem will largely determine how you go about solving it.
  198. Keep the two levels of ownership separate. Keep the responsibility for performance with the performer, and the responsibility for empowering with the leader.
  199. Empowerers proactively empower: asking questions, organizing data to confront people with reality, bringing customers and performers together to discuss standards of great performance and feedback on actual performance against those standards.
  200. Being the cold shower of reality, drawing the line in the sand that I did by calling the emergency meeting, is not enough. Nor is insisting upon tough standards, which I did in reminding everyone of our responsibilities for all those lives. In addition to those actions, and asking questions as I did at the beginning of the meeting, a leader’s proactive empowering responsibilities go beyond all of those. Freddie helped me learn that leaders also have to support the people in their needs and be ready to coach them, to help them, when they are ready to accept and execute their responsibilities.
  201. Leaders continue to coach and support because they are genuinely interested in that individual’s success.
  202. Freddie also helped me learn that ownership and responsibility are not zero sum games. I can transfer ownership and get other people to assume responsibility without diminishing my own ownership and responsibility in the situation.
  203. Ownership is not a fixed pie. In fact, it is an expanding pie. The more I transfer ownership to others, the more ownership I possess myself.
  204. Conversations are the vehicles leaders use to develop ownership. Use all instances, even seemingly insignificant cases, to precipitate discussion and learning about great performance.
  205. The leader’s main task concerning this ownership issue can be summarized in four letters, FCLP. F is for focus. C is for conversation. L is for learning. P is for performance.
  206. In every possible situation, Focus Conversations on Learning about Performance.
  207. When the leaders stop conferring benefits, people assume responsibility for delivering great performance for their customers.
  208. QUESTION: Do your people want to own the right responsibility and be great performers? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: The desire for owning the responsibility for great performance comes from within.
  209. Leadership isn’t processing papers. It’s about making things happen.
  210. Great Leaders Prevent Problems, Not Solve Them
  211. Stop rewarding people for bringing me problems and start rewarding them for solving their own problems. To accomplish that, I changed a number of systems and structures. Saying what needs to be done is simple. Doing it is anything but simple.
  212. We need substantially different actions to get us substantially different results.
  213. The “right” actions are those that meet the following criteria: 1. Deliverable: some specific, concrete, and tangible action. A meeting. A plan. A program. Answers the question ‘What will be done?” 2. Measurement: an indicator that helps you know when you have accomplished what you set out to do. Answers the question “How will we know when we have done it?” 3. Date: It must have a date by when it will be done. Answers the question “By when will it be done?” 4. Person responsible: Names the person who is going to be responsible for getting it done. Answers the question “Who will do it?”
  214. Your continuing leadership task: Help everyone in your organization identify what’s crucial and not crucial, and be dispassionate in dumping the noncontributors. Eliminate the “fat.”
  215. Another way to eliminate nonessentials is to think about your business as a raider would. Challenge yourself and your people: “Does this activity contribute at least 20 percent to the bottom line—or growing fast enough that it will in a few years?” If the answer is no, then get rid of it.
  216. Simplifying operations is another way to save costs. In an effort to solve problems, it’s easy to get caught up in drafting procedures. The procedure lasts long after the problem has been solved, outlives its usefulness, and becomes part of a growing bureaucracy. I empower my people regularly to attack their own procedures. They do this in two structured ways. First, we declare all systems null and void every year.
  217. Second, every week everyone writes a “5/15” report, no longer than one page, which takes fifteen minutes to write and five minutes to read. That report answers three questions: “What did I accomplish this week?” “What remains to be done next week?” “What needs to be fixed/changed/eliminated?” Anything that needs fixing/changing/ eliminating must be handled before the end of the next week.
  218. The people track the following data every month. Use these figures, or others of your own choosing, regularly, and you will run your business rather than your business running you. • Cash on hand and projected cash • Sales calls made to targeted customers • Customer moves through the sales cycle • Customer service rating for each person • Sales/orders • Quality levels • Weekly goal accomplishments
  219. The standard of performance is set by the poorest performer, not the best. People look to the leader for clues and a model of great performance. The leader sets the standard for performance by what he/she will and won’t accept.
  220. I learned that others would do much more if I expected more and accepted less.
  221. QUESTION: Do you like what you see in the mirror? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Your organization is a reflection of what you accept.
  222. Why don’t people “just do it”? Because the systems and structures usually prevent them by building in long approval cycles and multiple approvals. If it takes several months of meeting and nine different signatures to get anything done, it’s much easier to decide not to do anything.
  223. In my organization I make certain that risk-taking is part of the standards of great performance for each individual and that taking risks is rewarded, even the risks that don’t succeed. Ensure that systems empower the “just do it” mentality.
  224. Speed gave them focus. Henry learned in this hare and tortoise race, it is speed on the track that wins.
  225. Do What You Do Best-Give Away the Rest to Someone Else
  226. The old story is forever new in its relevance and unfolds in varying experiences. Challenges lead to actions, which lead to learning, which uncovers more challenges. What is new becomes old. What we thought was the same has changed and is different. These endless challenges and changes make getting up in the morning worthwhile.
  227. Begin by Asking the Thinking-Strategically Questions • What skills, attitudes, and behaviors of people are required to deliver great performance? • What positions give me the maximum leverage to infuse these skills, attitudes, and behaviors throughout the organization?
  228. Choose carefully. Don’t compromise. Here are some techniques I’ve found that work for me: 1. Preparation is vital. Review your profile before you talk to anyone. 2. Ask open-ended questions, such as: • What would you redesign about your last job, and why? • How would your references answer the following question … ? 3. Take good notes. You’ll likely forget otherwise—count on it. 4. Ask tough questions like: • What are your weaknesses and how do they show up in performance? • What would you do differently now, in light of what you’ve learned? 5. Hold multiple interviews and get independent judgments from each interviewer. 6. Involve everyone who’s going to be involved with that person: customers, suppliers, peers, employees.
  229. Organization structure eliminates people’s weaknesses. So organize around people’s weaknesses. As people grow and develop new strengths, and weaknesses emerge, reshuffle the boxes. That’s why organizing is really a process of constantly reorganizing.
  230. I Never Heard of Anyone Lying on His Deathbed Who Said, “I Fired That Person Too Soon”
  231. The premium is on learning fast enough to cope and to stay ahead of the pack. Learning is the key. Faster is the pace.
  232. I became a student of everyone and a follower of no one.
  233. Most of us overestimate the value of what we currently have, and have to give up, and underestimate the value of what we may gain.
  234. Learning New Leadership Patterns Isn’t What You Know, It’s What You Do
  235. Mostly, I learned that I learned a lot more by doing than I did by reading or listening to lectures. Doing presents me with the opportunity to learn. Get on with the doing. The more you do, the more you have the opportunity to learn. Widen the scope of doing. Go up in hot-air balloons. Go down in submarines. Take the risk to speak up and stand out.
  236. The worst mistake may be the best learning opportunity.
  237. Knowledge is nothing without action. Nothing changes until you do something. What you do will directly determine what you learn.
  238. Anything Worth Doing Is Worth Doing Poorly—At Least in the Beginning
  239. Doing it just right is not what’s important. Starting is. You can’t start getting better until you start.
  240. Since the greater risk is in doing nothing, you can minimize the risk by starting.
  241. Mistakes tell us that whatever we’re doing is not working. They tell us something is wrong. Most of the time we look for “something” other than ourselves. The lengths to which I’ve gone to avoid making a mistake or own up to one I made illustrate my propensity to avoid feedback.
  242. I learned two important leadership lessons from this mistake. First, focus on the skills required to do the job that needs to be done. Background is secondary and relevant only as it supports performance in this job.
  243. Even though fear and excitement trigger very similar physiological phenomena, we perceive fear negatively and excitement positively. When we permit the negative emotional feelings of fear to overcome us, we miss out on great learning opportunities which excitement presents us.
  244. What’s the Worst Thing That Could Happen to Me-and What Can I Do About It if It Does?
    1. NOTE: fear setting
  245. I most often discover that the worst that can happen isn’t nearly as terrible as I initially feared, and I can do much to cope successfully with it if it does.
  246. Examining the worst possible scenario and seeing that there are creative ways to deal with it successfully helps to reduce the fear of the new and the different.
  247. Sharing my fear helped to both disarm any opposition and to avoid cover-up behavior.
  248. Use Fear to Increase Performance Fear is a wonderful stimulant. It quickens the mind, sharpens the senses, heightens performance. I’ve learned to focus the stimulant on doing better, rather than worrying about doing worse.
  249. When fear runs through my system, I ask myself, “What can I do to remove the potential causes of failure?” “What can I do to ensure* success?” I’ve evolved rituals to answer these questions constructively.
  250. QUESTION: What’s the worst thing that can happen and how can I handle it? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Use your fear to mobilize your resources and stimulate your performance.
  251. Why do I get angry with that person, that topic, that situation? The answer to those questions tells me about myself, my best contributions to my organizations, and what I need to learn to Lead the Journey. One of my greatest teachers is my own anger, because it helps me learn more about myself as a leader. What I get angry about is what I need to learn more about. As tough as that insight is to swallow and digest, it is very valuable to my learning.
  252. What About You Reminds Me of What I Don’t Like About Me?
  253. In an effort to kill two birds with one stone, or more precisely, tone down two loud braggarts at the same time, I enlisted Ben to help me accomplish my changes. I asked him to watch me for loud bragging and self-centered kinds of behaviors. I arranged a signal for him to tip me off when I was slipping into the unwanted behaviors.
  254. Elicit the Right Help in Changing— Some Help Is No Help at All
  255. Focus on Performance to Overcome Anger
  256. Most of the time I discovered that open confrontation and discussion of the issues resulted in swift improvement.
  257. Anger tells a leader that he/she is shirking responsibilities. He/she is avoiding facing up to key performance issues. Anger is the red warning light that says, “Engine needs service.”
  258. “What is causing my anger in this situation?” I think it’s my impatience. I see, or I think I see, what needs to be done and I want to move on to the action phase. While others seem not to be ready yet, I sit and stew, and stew, and stew in frustration.
    1. NOTE: reminds me of me
  259. At its root, I discovered, anger is fear in another disguise. Why was I angry at Ben? I was afraid that he would ruin my business. Why was I angry during the selection process? I was afraid that I would waste too much time and not get to the “important” items I felt I had to do. I was also afraid that without me the best person wouldn’t get chosen. The fear, a.k.a. anger, showed me my lack of faith in both the process and the people. Anger was revealing my fears and raising them to an action level.
  260. QUESTION: What is my anger telling me that I need to learn about myself and what I’m doing? LEADERSHIP SOLUTION: Listen to your anger and learn from it.
  261. Stubbornness often signals to me that I may be disguising my real concerns.
  262. There’s another cause that’s worthy of a leader’s stubbornness: great performance. In too many instances, people are willing to “settle” for average, okay, or good performance. They want to avoid the stress and strain and unknown of “great” performance.
  263. The first step in handling a divorce is to gather up the courage to act. In AA terms, this is called “hitting bottom.” I’ve learned some ways to “raise the bottom” so the fall isn’t quite so far.
  264. Keep the responsibility for performance with the performer.
  265. Getting customers to say, “I want this. I don’t accept that,” is an excellent way to introduce reality and authority into performance discussions.
  266. the stream of continuing conversations about great performance serves as an early-warning signal to potential causes of divorce.
  267. I learned in the customer case discussed just above that how you handle the divorce is as important as the completion itself.
  268. Business reflects, and is a reflection of, life. How we handle business is how we handle life. Business is life.
  269. I had learned from business that you can’t “give” people things and have them value the things they get. They only value the things they earn.
  270. The great teachers in this classroom of business are mistakes, divorce, fear, anger, and stubbornness. In every business setting, these great teachers are present and ready to teach me. Sometimes I am not ready to learn.
  271. The dominant theme in my life now is learning. Learning more and faster is the only true competitive advantage. I work to instill that love of learning throughout my organization, and my life.
  272. We have several systems that foster that love of learning. We set aside a sum of money for each person to spend any way they wish on their learning. We pay for scuba diving lessons as well as calculus instruction. Learning is learning. Learning the discipline to master scuba diving carries over into mastering the discipline of making better sausage and writing better computer code.
  273. People in organizations obsessed with learning will succeed.
  274. As a thirsty person seeks out a water fountain, I’ve learned to seek out experiences. I deliberately put myself in new situations.
  275. Tomorrow Belongs to Those Who Prepare for It Today
  276. While action matters, it’s the right action that matters most.
  277. There are always a thousand reasons not to do what ought to be done. There is only one reason to do it: because it is the right thing to do. The right thing to do always means choosing the morally correct alternative. Ask yourself, “Could I explain my actions on 60 Minutes and be believed?” Only take those actions that could be defended and believed under harsh public scrutiny. The success of any organization depends upon what its people are willing to do. Mobilize this incredible people power by doing what’s morally right.
  278. Don’t confuse the risk of failure with the fear of failure. Fear is a great teacher. Use that teacher to learn what you must learn. Do not be like Hamlet, who was immobilized by his fears. Learn to go through your fears as a runner goes through the wall of pain.
  279. Effective leaders let their actions speak so clearly that you don’t have to hear their words.
  280. Reflect on the content of this book. It defines my morality. It is about learning, focus, and customers. It’s about accepting responsibility. And it is especially about great performance. I believe that we all have a moral imperative to strive to become as great a performer as we can possibly be.
What I got out of it
  1. A great business and management book. Your people have to know you care, give away ownership and responsibility, push down decision making as far as possible to those who know it best, create win/win scenarios, establish a culture of trust

The Most Important Thing: Uncommon Sense for the Thoughtful Investor by Howard Marks

Summary
  1. Not a how to guide for investing but Howard’s investing philosophy, his guideposts
Key Takeaways
  1. Focus on risk over returns
  2. Goal is to have people say, “huh, I never thought of it like that before”
  3. Experience is what you got when you didn’t get what you wanted. The most powerful lessons come in tough times
  4. No idea can be any better than the action taken on it
  5. Some influencers and mentors: Galbraith, Buffett, Taleb, Munger, Greenblatt, Rothschild
  6. Getting average results is easy, simply invest in an index fund. But, to be successful and best the market and other investors, it takes a deep commitment. To understand business models, psychology, history and a whole host of other disciplines
  7. Second level thinking requires you to see past the short term, see how other are thinking and see the effects of that, takes into account second order consequences, it is deep, complex, convoluted, uses probabilities to see future outcomes, takes many things into account, knows the consensus opinion
  8. Do you have the confidence to be above average? Can you use second order thinking? In order to be successful, you have to hold on consensus views and be correct
  9. Second most important thing is understanding market efficiency and its limitations. Howard’s take us that markets are efficient in that they quickly incorporate new information but they are not necessarily right
  10. Everything moves in cycles, including accepted wisdom
  11. When you have a great idea or thesis on an investment, ask “and who doesn’t know that?”
  12. The starting point and foundation for all investing is an accurate calculation of intrinsic value. Easier said than done
  13. Understanding risk is key. Risk is not volatility but the fact that more things can happen than will happen. He three steps are understanding it, knowing when its high and then controlling it. Risk is different for every investor so creating a broad stroke for it is not possible but the Sharpe ratio may be the best alternative
  14. The greatest investors are subject to some of the greatest periods of underperformance because of their unconsensus views and methods
  15. Improbable things happen and probably things don’t happen all the time
  16. People expect the future to resemble the past which sometimes it does but it leads to be people expecting change to be less impactful than it often is
  17. The most dire and negative situations can in fact be the most riskless as all optimism has been drive out of the price. Quality is not tied to risk. A high quality company can be very risky above a certain price
  18. “This time is different” should cause you to pay extreme attention
  19. Combative negative influences such as desire for more, desire for a sure thing, biases, fear of missing out, greed, fear, comparing self to others, ego and poor psychology is vital. This may be one of the greatest sources of advantage one can achieve
  20. It is essential to find bargains by being willing to invest in what others are seemingly over pessimistic about. Boil it all down in order to find bargains perception house sitter of work in reality for whatever number of
  21. Investing is the discipline of relative selection
  22. Should not go out and try to find out investments – let them find you
  23. Most people, although they have many holdings, are not truly diversified. Own is only diversified if you can expect the holdings to perform differently in changing environments. It is the rare investor who understands these correlations
What I got out of it
  1. One of my favorite investing books – focus on risk rather than return, understand how difficult the game is if you decide to play, must be a second/third level thinker…

Ask the Dust by John Fante

Summary
  1. Arturo Bandini narrates his life and struggles as a writer in LA
Key Takeaways
  1. Los Angeles, give me some of you! Los Angeles come to me the way I came to you, my feet over your streets, you pretty town I loved you so much, you sad flower in the sand, you pretty town.
  2. “I just got a letter from my agent,” I told her. “My agent in New York. He says I sold another one; he doesn’t say where, but he says he’s got one sold. So don’t worry Mrs. Hargraves, don’t you fret, I’ll have it in a day or so.” But she couldn’t believe a liar like me. It wasn’t really a lie; it was a wish, not a lie, and maybe it wasn’t even a wish, maybe it was a fact, and the only way to find out was watch the mailman, watch him closely, check his mail as he laid it on the desk in the lobby, ask him point blank if he had anything for Bandini. But I didn’t have to ask after six months at that hotel. He saw me coming and he always nodded yes or no before I asked: no, three million times; yes, once.
  3. Oh for a Mexican girl! I used to think of her all the time, my Mexican girl. I didn’t have one, but the streets were full of them, the Plaza and Chinatown were afire with them, and in my fashion they were mine, this one and that one, and some day when another check came it would be a fact. Meanwhile it was free and they were Aztec princesses and Mayan princesses, the peon girls in the Grand Central Market, in the Church of Our Lady, and I even went to Mass to look at them.
  4. The lean days of determination. That was the word for it, determination: Arturo Bandini in front of his typewriter two full days in succession, determined to succeed; but it didn’t work, the longest siege of hard and fast determination in his life, and not one line done, only two words written over and over across the page, up and down, the same words: palm tree, palm tree, palm tree, a battle to the death between the palm tree and me, and the palm tree won: see it out there swaying in the blue air, creaking sweetly in the blue air.
  5. I was twenty then. What the hell, I used to say, take your time, Bandini. You got ten years to write a book, so take it easy, get out and learn about life, walk the streets. That’s your trouble: your ignorance of life. Why, my God, man, do you realize you’ve never had any experience with a woman? Oh yes I have, oh I’ve had plenty. Oh no you haven’t. You need a woman, you need a bath, you need a good swift kick, you need money.
  6. Ten dollars: it will pay the rent for two and a half weeks, it will buy me three pairs of shoes, two pair of pants, or one thousand postage stamps to send material to the editors; indeed! But you haven’t any material, your talent is dubious, your talent is pitiful, you haven’t any talent, and stop lying to yourself day after day because you know The Little Dog Laughed is no good, and it will always be no good.
  7. Here was the Church of Our Lady, very old, the adobe blackened with age. For sentimental reasons I will go inside. For sentimental reasons only. I have not read Lenin, but I have heard him quoted, religion is the opium of the people. Talking to myself on the church steps: yeah, the opium of the people. Myself, I am an atheist: I have read The Anti-Christ and I regard it as a capital piece of work. I believe in the transvaluation of values, Sir. The Church must go, it is the haven of the booboisie, of boobs and bounders and all brummagem mountebanks.
  8. A prayer. Sure, one prayer: for sentimental reasons. Almighty God, I am sorry I am now an atheist, but have You read Nietzsche? Ah, such a book!
  9. Bandini (being interviewed prior to departure for Sweden): “My advice to all young writers is quite simple. I would caution them never to evade a new experience. I would urge them to live life in the raw, to grapple with it bravely, to attack it with naked fists.”
  10. An interesting innovation, peaches and oranges. My teeth tore them to pulp, the juices skewering and whimpering at the bottom of my stomach. It was so sad down there in my stomach. There was much weeping, and little gloomy clouds of gas pinched my heart.
  11. My plight drove me to the typewriter. I sat before it, overwhelmed with grief for Arturo Bandini. Sometimes an idea floated harmlessly through the room. It was like a small white bird. It meant no ill-will. It only wanted to help me, dear little bird. But I would strike at it, hammer it out across the keyboard, and it would die on my hands.
  12. When I got back to my room I threw myself on the bed and wept from deep inside my chest. I let it flow from every part of me, and after I could not cry anymore I felt fine again. I felt truthful and clean.
  13. There was a letter from Hackmuth in my box. I knew it was from Hackmuth. I could tell a Hackmuth letter a mile away. I could feel a Hackmuth letter, and it felt like an icicle sliding down my spine.
  14. Ah, Evelyn and Vivian, I love you both, I love you for your sad lives, the empty misery of your coming home at dawn. You too are alone, but you are not like Arturo Bandini, who is neither fish, fowl nor good red herring. So have your champagne, because I love you both, and you, too Vivian, even if your mouth looks like it had been dug out with raw fingernails and your old child’s eyes swim in blood written like mad sonnets.
  15. Something was wrong with her and it was not alcohol and I wanted to find out what it was.
  16. Vera Rivken, Arturo Bandini. It was not meant that way: it was never meant that way. I was wrong. I had committed a mortal sin. I could figure it mathematically, philosophically, psychologically: I could prove it a dozen ways, but I was wrong, for there was no denying the warm even rhythm of my guilt. Sick in my soul I tried to face the ordeal of seeking forgiveness. From whom? What God, what Christ? They were myths I once believed, and now they were beliefs I felt were myths.
What I got out of it
  1. Ryan Holiday recommended this book as it is one of his favorites about Los Angeles and having just moved here wanted to see what it was all about it. Great story and so beautifully written

Perennial Seller: The Art of Making and Marketing Work That Lasts by Ryan Holiday

Summary
  1. This book will teach you how to make something which stands the test of time, something great, a masterpiece, how to present it in a compelling, way how to market it, and how to create a platform around it
Key Takeaways
  1. Most artists fail in creating something lasting because they never give themselves the chance. They don’t think they can or they don’t even think too much about it, the incentives are for short term quick fixes, every example and even advice and responses from fans may hurt their chances
  2. Perennial products, regardless of initial success, get more customers and sales over time. People return to them more than once and recommend them to others
  3. The power of perennial sellers is not only that they keep being watched heard or important somehow but that they also get stronger overtime. This is the Lindy Effect in action – the longer they are in the spotlight the longer you can expect them to be around
  4. No matter how much time you spend afterwards marketing your product, if you don’t create a great product from the start, it has zero chance of being a perennial seller
  5. The creator must need to create whatever it is. A burning desire where they can’t stop thinking about it. This intention is what drives great work. A truth and purpose for why this great work needs to exist. These are works that change people, change the world
  6. It often takes great sacrifice to do this. Of relationships, ‘fun’ time and things, short term gratification and more. However, this isn’t only necessary, it is rewarding as you know you have put all you have into it
  7. If you feel like you only have a short window to release something, you’re often worrying about the wrong thing or its not the type of work that will last. Ideas need time to marinate and evolve. Rushing into things destroys this process
  8. Find your itch and scratch it. Trying to be for everyone will likely make you for no one
  9. Being the only person doing something is often a better strategy then being the best at something
  10. Some good questions to ask to see if you’re on the right track is, “What sacred cows am I slaying?” and “what dominant players am I disrupting?” and “what people am I pissing off?”
  11. The best art divides an audience
  12. It is important to know your audience context genre and more in order to know which boundaries to push in which to leave
  13. Doing your best is all that matters. There is no benchmark. No competition
  14. It is crucial to go through a painful iteration process. You need unbiased outside advisors to critique you and give you feedback. This can take years but no first version is ever the best. Polish, test and retest
  15. One sentence, one paragraph, one page – helpful template to be able to succinctly describe what you’re aiming to do and achieve
  16. The best creatives know the critical variables the projects hinge on. They are steadfast on these and more flexible on others
  17. If you can’t be first in your category, create a new category where you can be first
  18. I am doing x for x because of x
  19. Taking the leap requires giving up all other missions or projects and devoting yourself wholly to creating a masterpiece
  20. Marketing is anything that gets and keeps customers
  21. The greats are humble and nervous about their work. The imposters tend to be overconfident
  22. Argues that giving away copies is often a great way to get started as obscurity equals death. Amazon has found the cheapest books sell the most and actually goes on to make more money than more expensive books. Lower the price up to the point where if it were lower it would hurt your brand or reputation. Essential to make the process as easy and frictionless and cheap as possible in order to get people to take a chance on you
  23. Getting influencers on board is important. Understand they are often hyper fans and doing something to help them look good in their field can help a lot. Johnny Carson made a lot of people’s stand up careers and he wanted to be seen as a taste leader here. Always put yourself in their shoes, send them more stuff than they know what to do with as they likely have influencer friends
  24. Advertising is so much more powerful when there is already an established audience and track record
  25. Critical to know a customers lifetime value and their cost per acquisition
  26. Doing something unexpected is almost always a better advertising play than going up dollar for dollar against professional ad agencies
  27. Humor and levity is probably more effective than manipulation or beating people over the head
  28. Your platform is more than social media. It is what you grow and nourish in order to help your creative work expand – reputation, context, friends, etc
  29. Good works compound on themselves, making it easier to sell and advertise each time you manage this
What I got out of it
  1. The power of intention once again. Understanding the time, sacrifice, patience, frustrations that every great work requires will help you get through and manage this process

The Autobiography of Charles Darwin by Charles Darwin

Summary
  1. The life and accomplishments of Darwin through his own eyes
Key Takeaways
  1. I have attempted to write the following account of myself, as if I were a dead man in another world looking back at my own life. Nor have I found this difficult, for life is nearly over with me. I have taken no pains about my style of writing.
  2. The passion for collecting which leads a man to be a systematic naturalist, a virtuoso, or a miser, was very strong in me, and was clearly innate, as none of my sisters or brother ever had this taste.
  3. I have heard my father and elder sister say that I had, as a very young boy, a strong taste for long solitary walks; but what I thought about I know not. I often became quite absorbed, and once, whilst returning to school on the summit of the old fortifications round Shrewsbury, which had been converted into a public foot-path with no parapet on one side, I walked off and fell to the ground, but the height was only seven or eight feet. Nevertheless the number of thoughts which passed through my mind during this very short, but sudden and wholly unexpected fall, was astonishing, and seem hardly compatible with what physiologists have, I believe, proved about each thought requiring quite an appreciable amount of time.
  4. The school as a means of education to me was simply a blank. During my whole life I have been singularly incapable of mastering any language. Much attention was paid to learning by heart the lessons of the previous day; this I could effect with great facility, learning forty or fifty lines of Virgil or Homer, whilst I was in morning chapel; but this exercise was utterly useless, for every verse was forgotten in forty-eight hours.
  5. I believe that I was considered by all my masters and by my father as a very ordinary boy, rather below the common standard in intellect. To my deep mortification my father once said to me, “You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, and rat-catching, and you will be a disgrace to yourself and all your family.” But my father, who was the kindest man I ever knew and whose memory I love with all my heart, must have been angry and somewhat unjust when he used such words.
  6. Looking back as well as I can at my character during my school life, the only qualities which at this period promised well for the future, were, that I had strong and diversified tastes, much zeal for whatever interested me, and a keen pleasure in understanding any complex subject or thing. I was taught Euclid by a private tutor, and I distinctly remember the intense satisfaction which the clear geometrical proofs gave me.
    1. NOTE: recipe for learning
  7. I had many friends amongst the schoolboys, whom I loved dearly, and I think that my disposition was then very affectionate.
  8. With respect to science, I continued collecting minerals with much zeal, but quite unscientifically—all that I cared about was a new-named mineral, and I hardly attempted to classify them.
  9. This was the best part of my education at school, for it showed me practically the meaning of experimental science.
  10. I was sent there to commence them. But soon after this period I became convinced from various small circumstances that my father would leave me property enough to subsist on with some comfort, though I never imagined that I should be so rich a man as I am; but my belief was sufficient to check any strenuous efforts to learn medicine.
  11. I also attended on two occasions the operating theatre in the hospital at Edinburgh, and saw two very bad operations, one on a child, but I rushed away before they were completed. Nor did I ever attend again, for hardly any inducement would have been strong enough to make me do so; this being long before the blessed days of chloroform. The two cases fairly haunted me for many a long year.
  12. My zeal was so great that I used to place my shooting-boots open by my bed-side when I went to bed, so as not to lose half a minute in putting them on in the morning; and on one occasion I reached a distant part of the Maer estate, on the 20th of August for black-game shooting, before I could see: I then toiled on with the game-keeper the whole day through thick heath and young Scotch firs.
  13. After having spent two sessions in Edinburgh, my father perceived, or he heard from my sisters, that I did not like the thought of being a physician, so he proposed that I should become a clergyman.
  14. Considering how fiercely I have been attacked by the orthodox, it seems ludicrous that I once intended to be a clergyman.
  15. But I am glad to think that I had many other friends of a widely different nature.
  16. But no pursuit at Cambridge was followed with nearly so much eagerness or gave me so much pleasure as collecting beetles. It was the mere passion for collecting, for I did not dissect them, and rarely compared their external characters with published descriptions, but got them named anyhow. I will give a proof of my zeal: one day, on tearing off some old bark, I saw two rare beetles, and seized one in each hand; then I saw a third and new kind, which I could not bear to lose, so that I popped the one which I held in my right hand into my mouth. Alas! it ejected some intensely acrid fluid, which burnt my tongue so that I was forced to spit the beetle out, which was lost, as was the third one.
  17. I have not as yet mentioned a circumstance which influenced my whole career more than any other. This was my friendship with Professor Henslow. Before coming up to Cambridge, I had heard of him from my brother as a man who knew every branch of science, and I was accordingly prepared to reverence him. He kept open house once every week when all undergraduates, and some older members of the University, who were attached to science, used to meet in the evening. I soon got, through Fox, an invitation, and went there regularly. Before long I became well acquainted with Henslow, and during the latter half of my time at Cambridge took long walks with him on most days; so that I was called by some of the dons “the man who walks with Henslow;” and in the evening I was very often asked to join his family dinner. His knowledge was great in botany, entomology, chemistry, mineralogy, and geology. His strongest taste was to draw conclusions from long-continued minute observations. His judgment was excellent, and his whole mind well balanced; but I do not suppose that any one would say that he possessed much original genius. He was deeply religious, and so orthodox that he told me one day he should be grieved if a single word of the Thirty-nine Articles were altered. His moral qualities were in every way admirable. He was free from every tinge of vanity or other petty feeling; and I never saw a man who thought so little about himself or his own concerns. His temper was imperturbably good, with the most winning and courteous manners; yet, as I have seen, he could be roused by any bad action to the warmest indignation and prompt action.
  18. Looking back, I infer that there must have been something in me a little superior to the common run of youths, otherwise the above-mentioned men, so much older than me and higher in academical position, would never have allowed me to associate with them. Certainly I was not aware of any such superiority, and I remember one of my sporting friends, Turner, who saw me at work with my beetles, saying that I should some day be a Fellow of the Royal Society, and the notion seemed to me preposterous.
  19. During my last year at Cambridge, I read with care and profound interest Humboldt’s ‘Personal Narrative.’ This work, and Sir J. Herschel’s ‘Introduction to the Study of Natural Philosophy,’ stirred up in me a burning zeal to add even the most humble contribution to the noble structure of Natural Science. No one or a dozen other books influenced me nearly so much as these two.
  20. These gravel-beds belong in fact to the glacial period, and in after years I found in them broken arctic shells. But I was then utterly astonished at Sedgwick not being delighted at so wonderful a fact as a tropical shell being found near the surface in the middle of England. Nothing before had ever made me thoroughly realise, though I had read various scientific books, that science consists in grouping facts so that general laws or conclusions may be drawn from them.
  21. We had several quarrels; for instance, early in the voyage at Bahia, in Brazil, he defended and praised slavery, which I abominated
  22. The voyage of the “Beagle” has been by far the most important event in my life, and has determined my whole career; yet it depended on so small a circumstance as my uncle offering to drive me thirty miles to Shrewsbury, which few uncles would have done, and on such a trifle as the shape of my nose. I have always felt that I owe to the voyage the first real training or education of my mind; I was led to attend closely to several branches of natural history, and thus my powers of observation were improved, though they were always fairly developed.
  23. During some part of the day I wrote my Journal, and took much pains in describing carefully and vividly all that I had seen; and this was good practice.
  24. The above various special studies were, however, of no importance compared with the habit of energetic industry and of concentrated attention to whatever I was engaged in, which I then acquired. Everything about which I thought or read was made to bear directly on what I had seen or was likely to see; and this habit of mind was continued during the five years of the voyage. I feel sure that it was this training which has enabled me to do whatever I have done in science.
  25. Looking backwards, I can now perceive how my love for science gradually preponderated over every other taste. During the first two years my old passion for shooting survived in nearly full force, and I shot myself all the birds and animals for my collection; but gradually I gave up my gun more and more, and finally altogether, to my servant, as shooting interfered with my work, more especially with making out the geological structure of a country. I discovered, though unconsciously and insensibly, that the pleasure of observing and reasoning was a much higher one than that of skill and sport.
  26. As far as I can judge of myself, I worked to the utmost during the voyage from the mere pleasure of investigation, and from my strong desire to add a few facts to the great mass of facts in Natural Science.
  27. I think that I can say with truth that in after years, though I cared in the highest degree for the approbation of such men as Lyell and Hooker, who were my friends, I did not care much about the general public. I do not mean to say that a favourable review or a large sale of my books did not please me greatly, but the pleasure was a fleeting one, and I am sure that I have never turned one inch out of my course to gain fame.
  28. In July I opened my first note-book for facts in relation to the Origin of Species, about which I had long reflected, and never ceased working for the next twenty years.
  29. Because no other explanation was possible under our then state of knowledge, I argued in favour of sea-action; and my error has been a good lesson to me never to trust in science to the principle of exclusion.
  30. No other work of mine was begun in so deductive a spirit as this, for the whole theory was thought out on the west coast of South America, before I had seen a true coral reef. I had therefore only to verify and extend my views by a careful examination of living reefs.
  31. This excursion interested me greatly, and it was the last time I was ever strong enough to climb mountains or to take long walks such as are necessary for geological work.
  32. I saw more of Lyell than of any other man, both before and after my marriage. His mind was characterised, as it appeared to me, by clearness, caution, sound judgment, and a good deal of originality. When I made any remark to him on Geology, he never rested until he saw the whole case clearly, and often made me see it more clearly than I had done before. He would advance all possible objections to my suggestion, and even after these were exhausted would long remain dubious. A second characteristic was his hearty sympathy with the work of other scientific men.
  33. “What a good thing it would be if every scientific man was to die when sixty years old, as afterwards he would be sure to oppose all new doctrines.”
  34. His knowledge was extraordinarily great, and much died with him, owing to his excessive fear of ever making a mistake.
  35. —reminds me of Buckle whom I once met at Hensleigh Wedgwood’s. I was very glad to learn from him his system of collecting facts. He told me that he bought all the books which he read, and made a full index, to each, of the facts which he thought might prove serviceable to him, and that he could always remember in what book he had read anything, for his memory was wonderful. I asked him how at first he could judge what facts would be serviceable, and he answered that he did not know, but that a sort of instinct guided him. From this habit of making indices, he was enabled to give the astonishing number of references on all sorts of subjects, which may be found in his ‘History of Civilisation.’
  36. During the first part of our residence we went a little into society, and received a few friends here; but my health almost always suffered from the excitement, violent shivering and vomiting attacks being thus brought on. I have therefore been compelled for many years to give up all dinner-parties; and this has been somewhat of a deprivation to me, as such parties always put me into high spirits. From the same cause I have been able to invite here very few scientific acquaintances.
  37. My chief enjoyment and sole employment throughout life has been scientific work; and the excitement from such work makes me for the time forget, or drives quite away, my daily discomfort.
  38. I record in a little diary, which I have always kept, that my three geological books (‘Coral Reefs’ included) consumed four and a half years’ steady work;
  39. To understand the structure of my new Cirripede I had to examine and dissect many of the common forms; and this gradually led me on to take up the whole group. I worked steadily on this subject for the next eight years, and ultimately published two thick volumes
  40. From September 1854 I devoted my whole time to arranging my huge pile of notes, to observing, and to experimenting in relation to the transmutation of species. During the voyage of the “Beagle” I had been deeply impressed by discovering in the Pampean formation great fossil animals covered with armour like that on the existing armadillos; secondly, by the manner in which closely allied animals replace one another in proceeding southwards over the Continent; and thirdly, by the South American character of most of the productions of the Galapagos archipelago, and more especially by the manner in which they differ slightly on each island of the group; none of the islands appearing to be very ancient in a geological sense. It was evident that such facts as these, as well as many others, could only be explained on the supposition that species gradually become modified; and the subject haunted me. But it was equally evident that neither the action of the surrounding conditions, nor the will of the organisms (especially in the case of plants) could account for the innumerable cases in which organisms of every kind are beautifully adapted to their habits of life—for instance, a woodpecker or a tree-frog to climb trees, or a seed for dispersal by hooks or plumes.
  41. soon perceived that selection was the keystone of man’s success in making useful races of animals and plants. But how selection could be applied to organisms living in a state of nature remained for some time a mystery to me. In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement ‘Malthus on Population,’ and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here then I had at last got a theory by which to work; but I was so anxious to avoid prejudice, that I determined not for some time to write even the briefest sketch of it. In June 1842 I first allowed myself the satisfaction of writing a very brief abstract of my theory in pencil in 35 pages; and this was enlarged during the summer of 1844 into one of 230 pages, which I had fairly copied out and still possess.
  42. But at that time I overlooked one problem of great importance; and it is astonishing to me, except on the principle of Columbus and his egg, how I could have overlooked it and its solution. This problem is the tendency in organic beings descended from the same stock to diverge in character as they become modified. That they have diverged greatly is obvious from the manner in which species of all kinds can be classed under genera, genera under families, families under sub-orders and so forth; and I can remember the very spot in the road, whilst in my carriage, when to my joy the solution occurred to me; and this was long after I had come to Down. The solution, as I believe, is that the modified offspring of all dominant and increasing forms tend to become adapted to many and highly diversified places in the economy of nature.
  43. The success of the ‘Origin’ may, I think, be attributed in large part to my having long before written two condensed sketches, and to my having finally abstracted a much larger manuscript, which was itself an abstract. By this means I was enabled to select the more striking facts and conclusions. I had, also, during many years followed a golden rule, namely, that whenever a published fact, a new observation or thought came across me, which was opposed to my general results, to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once; for I had found by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from the memory than favourable ones. Owing to this habit, very few objections were raised against my views which I had not at least noticed and attempted to answer.
  44. I gained much by my delay in publishing from about 1839, when the theory was clearly conceived, to 1859; and I lost nothing by it, for I cared very little whether men attributed most originality to me or Wallace; and his essay no doubt aided in the reception of the theory.
  45. Whenever I have found out that I have blundered, or that my work has been imperfect, and when I have been contemptuously criticised, and even when I have been overpraised, so that I have felt mortified, it has been my greatest comfort to say hundreds of times to myself that “I have worked as hard and as well as I could, and no man can do more than this.”
  46. An unverified hypothesis is of little or no value; but if anyone should hereafter be led to make observations by which some such hypothesis could be established, I shall have done good service, as an astonishing number of isolated facts can be thus connected together and rendered intelligible.
  47. My ‘Descent of Man’ was published in February, 1871. As soon as I had become, in the year 1837 or 1838, convinced that species were mutable productions, I could not avoid the belief that man must come under the same law. Accordingly I collected notes on the subject for my own satisfaction, and not for a long time with any intention of publishing. Although in the ‘Origin of Species’ the derivation of any particular species is never discussed, yet I thought it best, in order that no honourable man should accuse me of concealing my views, to add that by the work “light would be thrown on the origin of man and his history.” It would have been useless and injurious to the success of the book to have paraded, without giving any evidence, my conviction with respect to his origin.
  48. During subsequent years, whenever I had leisure, I pursued my experiments, and my book on ‘Insectivorous Plants’ was published in July 1875—that is, sixteen years after my first observations. The delay in this case, as with all my other books, has been a great advantage to me; for a man after a long interval can criticise his own work, almost as well as if it were that of another person.
What I got out of it
  1. So many nuggets but Darwin’s recipe for learning is gold: concentrated self-study, keeping of a diary/journal, keeping indexed notes of relevant material, seeking to test and destroy beloved concepts by immediately scribbling down ‘unfavorable’ evidence/results and thinking through why this may be right, and learning lessons by heart

Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes

Summary
  1. Don Quixote is obsessed with what he has read about chivalry and decides to go on a knight’s errand with Sancho Panza to take on the evil and wicked
Key Takeaways
  1. Don Quixote seems like a buffoon at times and at others spouts great wisdom. Sancho is there to help him out and be his foil
  2. The book ends with Don Quixote dying and the knight’s errand ending. This was meant to show the death of chivalry in the world
What I got out of it
  1. Funny book at times but dragged out and long. Interesting narration at times and dives into worth and wealth, honor, romance and more

The Seventh Sense: Power, Fortune and Survival in the Age of Networks by Joshua Cooper Ramo

Summary
  1. This books dives into the power of networks and how the interconnectedness of everything changes everything. The seventh sense lies in harnessing and understanding the power of networks
Key Takeaways
  1. The sixth sense was Nietzsche’s idea of people having to get a sense for the rhythm of history in order to deal with the then nascent industrial revolution
  2. Seventh sense allows us to change our habits in order to deal with our new networked world where we are constantly connected. Any system which is not designed around or to work with constant connection will have to be re-thought and re-designed or else they will crack in today’s new paradigm
  3. In a world where the map is constantly changing due to the power networks have to effect change, one has to rely on their instincts or seventh sense in order to survive and thrive
  4. Mastery of the seventh sense will give people an ability to instantly feel and react to the changing power of networks
  5. Understanding always takes a long time, contemplation, stillness and deep conversations with others in order to penetrate and embody the truth.
  6. Networks grow as they gain nodes which connect across areas, mediums and geography. Networks grow powerful as they expand and depends on the type and relationship and speed of the nodes. Helpful metaphor for world of punctuated equilibrium is when molecules of water molecules link up and suddenly turns to ice when the temperature drops low enough. A powerful network can develop and disrupt that quickly
  7. The seventh sense is the ability to look at any object and see how it is changed by connection. Connection changes the nature of an object
  8. Protocols allow you to design the organization and processes of a system and therefore the design of the protocol gives you almost total control of the system. Awesome example where he says that learning Chinese fluently is not what will be important in the future but creating the translation protocol will be because this controls the system and makes one specific language less important
  9. That works always reflect a mission at assets of the people
  10. The order different field in to a road as that work expand
  11. The physical world shape and influenced by the design of the digital world
  12. America is different than previous superpowers in the sense that she is willing to change and disrupt what makes her so dominant today
  13. So much of what is brilliant and revolutionary at first is seen as crazy, comical and/or stupid
  14. Greatest threat to America dominanfe is not China,Russia or anything else but the evolution of networks and the power they bring
  15. Ask Victor for the one control and mastered by the victors of the future will be those who master networks
  16. In the short run actors create relation but in the long run relation create asked doors
  17. What marks successful network thinkers is that they see structures with in the network and how power and influence might move through them
  18. That work create centralization and distribution. Network notes are distributed all over the world but power accrued and centralizes along the most powerful company. Distribution and concentration are the essence of power now. As more devices and those connect to the network the more powerful the core have to become
  19. The “platform used to matter but now it is Proto call  indicate how powerful pipeline in the design a system have become
  20. Leaders are struggling today because of the tension between centralization and distribution. This may be in paradoxical but much light in and day they coexist and need to other in order to exist exist
  21. System and network also those bowls in the job based on other systems that work interaction so that they are constantly adjusting and evolving.  They are complex adaptive systems where unexpected Haviar’s and a hat and pattern eventually merge. Once an object connect to a system turns from complicated to complex. Industrial revolution made a simple complicated and network revolution made the complicated complex
  22. Robust principal conservative and what you do and liberals and what you except
  23. Conductivity brings with it multiple downside such as owner ability to have to wear your machine can be taken over and commanded what to do. All of the worlds most relied upon system and from the political to financials are vulnerable to sources that are hard to stop and even harder to see. Most of the biggest decision that will affect our lives will from now on be done and implemented in secret
  24. New cast of it being for who truly understands how to make computers that work at systems say and how they should be designed. Betty ourselves cause but I’ll have the MC of the seven cents
  25. Seventh son does not want a level of acidity towards these new network but rather an understanding of its nature in order to further what we really care about
  26. At work are fundamentally interwoven with time and often try heated up or manipulated in other ways
  27. How we perceive is greatly influenced by in which we experience for example climbing a hill on foot versus in a car are almost totally different experience
  28. In the end that works for Bill to get around time by there nearly instantaneous function. As it up space becomes compress as you can travel the same distance and last time. Bass is a competitive advantage to be faster is the sizes for the future lies those who are the fastest
  29. Old world in terms of distance where as the new cast thing in terms of how fast you can traverses. Geography versus whole policy. Today how far away something is truly determined by the speed and quality of the connection and not by distance
  30. The true power of network lies in trust ties and not in tables or fiber
  31. How are influence and well will accrue to those who are better able to compress face time as there seems to be on unlimited desire for Steve
  32. Today there is no more powerful position that to a network which is desirable for others. Figuring out where our who is our will help you figure out what steps to take and whether to build your own pasta or do something new
  33. Network allow for a relatively new phenomenon which turns diminishing returns into increasing returns as season at work and become more powerful figure they got and the longer they are able survive. Network effects are the strongest type of increasing return and changes how we think about and operate businesses. These businesses are power law distributed as they breed commanding winners – winner take all. Networks optimize themselves to be faster and more efficient the bigger they get and the more people who use them. Winner takes all because we all benefit
  34. Date will be the most powerful force moving forward as they are so much faster than other option been cut out from these days is increasingly hurtful
  35. A neck network and connected world wants the fastest solution to everything from social media to videos to online payment it is all needed in some sand
  36. When the Chinese want to do something they asked what is the nature of the age as the context matters as much as the solution but I Americans simply begin with a goal. The author posit that today’s nature is one of collapse of old industry and giant and construction of new one
  37. That works give us a glimpse into where power is and will be in the strategies one should employ based on this
  38. The fundamental question of power in today’s age is whether you or your country or company are the gatekeeper or gatekept. The nature of today is that everything is or will be connected and as we’ve learned, this changes the nature of the object connected. This process of linking everything is unstoppable
  39. An increasingly powerful tool will be the ability to cut and keep people out of these important gatelands
  40. Disappearing AI if the concept that AI is getting so powerful. So much data entry so many connections that how it got to a dancer is becoming increasingly impossible for humans to figure out this has in Norman and location for our future and is exciting and scary
Summary

Conflicting modification on August 11, 2017 at 12:15:46:

Summary
Key Takeaways
  1. The sixth sense was Nietzsche’s idea of people having to get a sense for the rhythm of history in order to deal with the then nascent industrial revolution
  2. Seventh sense allows us to change our habits in order to deal with our new networked world where we are constantly connected. Any system which is not designed around or to work with constant connection will have to be re-thought and re-designed or else they will crack in today’s new paradigm
  3. In a world where the map is constantly changing due to the power networks have to effect change, one has to rely on their instincts or seventh sense in order to survive and thrive
  4. Mastery of the seventh sense will give people an ability to instantly feel and react to the changing power of networks
  5. Understanding always takes a long time, contemplation, stillness and deep conversations with others in order to penetrate and embody the truth.
  6. Networks grow as they gain nodes which connect across areas, mediums and geography. Networks grow powerful as they expand and depends on the type and relationship and speed of the nodes. Helpful metaphor for world of punctuated equilibrium is when molecules of water molecules link up and suddenly turns to ice when the temperature drops low enough. A powerful network can develop and disrupt that quickly
  7. The seventh sense is the ability to look at any object and see how it is changed by connection. Connection changes the nature of an object
  8. Protocols allow you to design the organization and processes of a system and therefore the design of the protocol gives you almost total control of the system. Awesome example where he says that learning Chinese fluently is not what will be important in the future but creating the translation protocol will be because this controls the system and makes one specific language less important
  9. That works always reflect a mission at assets of the people
  10. The order different field in to a road as that work expand
  11. The physical world shape and influenced by the design of the digital world
  12. America is different than previous superpowers in the sense that she is willing to change and disrupt what makes her so dominant today
  13. So much of what is brilliant and revolutionary at first is seen as crazy, comical and/or stupid
  14. Greatest threat to America dominanfe is not China,Russia or anything else but the evolution of networks and the power they bring
  15. Ask Victor for the one control and mastered by the victors of the future will be those who master networks
  16. In the short run actors create relation but in the long run relation create asked doors
  17. What marks successful network thinkers is that they see structures with in the network and how power and influence might move through them
  18. That work create centralization and distribution. Network notes are distributed all over the world but power accrued and centralizes along the most powerful company. Distribution and concentration are the essence of power now. As more devices and those connect to the network the more powerful the core have to become
  19. The “platform used to matter but now it is Proto call  indicate how powerful pipeline in the design a system have become
  20. Leaders are struggling today because of the tension between centralization and distribution. This may be in paradoxical but much light in and day they coexist and need to other in order to exist exist
  21. System and network also those bowls in the job based on other systems that work interaction so that they are constantly adjusting and evolving.  They are complex adaptive systems where unexpected Haviar’s and a hat and pattern eventually merge. Once an object connect to a system turns from complicated to complex. Industrial revolution made a simple complicated and network revolution made the complicated complex
  22. Robust principal conservative and what you do and liberals and what you except
  23. Conductivity brings with it multiple downside such as owner ability to have to wear your machine can be taken over and commanded what to do. All of the worlds most relied upon system and from the political to financials are vulnerable to sources that are hard to stop and even harder to see. Most of the biggest decision that will affect our lives will from now on be done and implemented in secret
  24. New cast of it being for who truly understands how to make computers that work at systems say and how they should be designed. Betty ourselves cause but I’ll have the MC of the seven cents
  25. Seventh son does not want a level of acidity towards these new network but rather an understanding of its nature in order to further what we really care about
  26. At work are fundamentally interwoven with time and often try heated up or manipulated in other ways
  27. How we perceive is greatly influenced by in which we experience for example climbing a hill on foot versus in a car are almost totally different experience
  28. In the end that works for Bill to get around time by there nearly instantaneous function. As it up space becomes compress as you can travel the same distance and last time. Bass is a competitive advantage to be faster is the sizes for the future lies those who are the fastest
  29. Old world in terms of distance where as the new cast thing in terms of how fast you can traverses. Geography versus whole policy. Today how far away something is truly determined by the speed and quality of the connection and not by distance
  30. The true power of network lies in trust ties and not in tables or fiber
  31. How are influence and well will accrue to those who are better able to compress face time as there seems to be on unlimited desire for Steve
  32. Today there is no more powerful position that to a network which is desirable for others. Figuring out where our who is our will help you figure out what steps to take and whether to build your own pasta or do something new
  33. Network allow for a relatively new phenomenon which turns diminishing returns into increasing returns as season at work and become more powerful figure they got and the longer they are able survive. Network effects are the strongest type of increasing return and changes how we think about and operate businesses. These businesses are power law distributed as they breed commanding winners
Summary
  1. Fascinating book on the power of networks and how the ability to see how the nature of things change once they are connected is where future power, innovation, influence and wealth lies.

Ice Age by John and Mary Gribbin

Summary
  1. “As we mentioned earlier, given the present day geography of our planet—the distribution of the continents and oceans—the natural state of the Earth is in a full Ice Age. Koppen was correct in highlighting the importance of summer warmth in influencing the advance and retreat of the ice in the Northern Hemisphere. But, in a sense, he, too, got the argument backwards. It isn’t so much that Ice Ages occur when the astronomical influences conspire to produce particularly cool summers; rather, what matters is that Interglacials only occur when the astronomical influences conspire to produce unusually warm summers, encouraging the ice to retreat. Without all three of the astronomical rhythms working in step in this way, the Earth stays in a deep freeze. And that is why the actual pattern of climate over the past few million years has been one of long Ice Ages (in fact, a single long Ice Epoch) interrupted by short-lived Interglacials, like the one we are living in now…Without the astronomical rhythms of the Ice Ages, we would probably still be tree-apes. It was the repeated drying out and recovery of the East African forests that pushed our ancestors out on to the plains, forced them to become more versatile, encouraged them to walk upright rather than climbing on branches, and, almost as an afterthought, made us intelligent. Fully modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens, emerged during the previous Interglacial to our own, by about 100,000 years ago, and had just one more Ice Age to endure before they began to build civilization. We are the product of the latest Ice Epoch, in a way that Agassiz, Croll and Milankovitch could never have guessed, and that realization is the ultimate triumph of the theory of Ice Ages.”
Key Takeaways
  1. “Our perspective (the entire history of human civilization) embraces only a short-lived, temporary retreat of the ice, an Interglacial. The succession of relatively long-lived Ice Ages and relatively short-lived Interglacials is now known as an Ice Epoch, and lasts for several million years…We think that it is normal to have ice at both poles of our planet. After all, there has been ice there for longer than there has been human civilization. But in the long history of the Earth, polar ice caps are rare, and having two polar ice caps at the same time may be unique. Indeed, it may be the presence of those polar ice caps which has made us human. And although we associate weather with the movement of masses of air around the globe, with high pressure systems bringing settled, dry conditions and low pressure systems bringing wind and rain or snow, as far as climate is concerned great ocean currents are much more important.”
  2. The changes resulting from Arctic warming would be bigger than you might expect at first sight, and would in many ways be unpredictable, because of the effect of positive feedback. Today, the shiny white surface of the ice covering the Arctic Ocean reflects away incoming solar energy, and helps to keep the polar region cool. Once the ice starts to melt, however, it exposes dark water, which absorbs the incoming solar energy and warms the region still further. If the world cooled for any reason, the feedback would operate in reverse, with dark ocean being covered by shiny ice that reflects away incoming solar energy and helps to keep things cold. But you can’t have half the north polar icecap; the feedbacks make it an all or nothing choice.
  3. This fact alone tells you that our distance from the Sun is not the cause of the seasons; in the Northern Hemisphere, we have summer when we are furthest from the Sun. But maybe the elliptical orbit produces other, more subtle effects on climate.
  4. In order to understand a given law, I was generally obliged to make myself acquainted with the preceding law or condition on which it depended. I remember well that, before I could make headway in physical astronomy… I had to go back and study the laws of motion and the fundamental principles of mechanics. In like manner I studied pneumatics, hydrostatics, light, heat, electricity and magnetism. I obtained assistance from no one.
  5. The environment suited him down to the ground. ‘I have never been in any place so congenial to me as that institution,’ he wrote. ‘My salary was small, it is true, little more than sufficient to enable me to subsist; but this was compensated by advantages for me of another kind.’ He meant the library, and the peace and quiet, allowing him to give rein to his ‘strong and almost irresistible propensity towards study’.
  6. The change in eccentricity is measured in terms of the distance between the two foci of the ellipse, as a percentage of the long axis of the ellipse. For a perfect circle, the two foci merge to become one, with no distance between them, so the eccentricity is zero. Today, the eccentricity of the Earth’s orbit is about 1 per cent, but Leverrier showed that at its most extreme the Earth’s orbit has an eccentricity of roughly 6 per cent. Because Leverrier’s calculations showed that the Earth’s orbit was in a more highly eccentric state 100,000 years ago, while for the past 10,000 years or so it has been in a low eccentricity state, and since the world is warmer now than it was in the past, Croll speculated that some effect associated with high eccentricity must be responsible for Ice Ages.
  7. Leverrier’s calculations had already shown that whatever kind of orbit the Earth is in at any particular epoch, the amount of heat received from the Sun over the course of an entire year stays the same; but Croll followed up the idea that it might be the way the heat is distributed between the seasons which matters, since this is undoubtedly affected by the eccentricity. When the orbital eccentricity is low, and the orbit is circular, the amount of heat received by the whole planet from the Sun each week is the same throughout the year; but when the orbit is more elliptical, with high eccentricity, the Earth receives more heat in a week at one end of its orbit, closest to the Sun, and correspondingly less heat in a week at the other end of its orbit, farthest from the Sun. Depending on which hemisphere you live in, this may mean that when the orbit is more eccentric there is more difference between the seasons, with cold winters when the Earth is farthest from the Sun and hot summers when it is closest to the Sun; or (in the other hemisphere) it may mean that the eccentricity effect smooths out the difference between the seasons, keeping summers cool and winters mild.
  8. Croll argued that what was needed to build an Ice Age was a series of very cold winters, so that there would be more snowfall, building up white snowfields and ice sheets which would reflect away the summer heat from the Sun to keep the hemisphere cool. He was one of the first scientists to develop the idea of feedback in any context, and although it happens that he got the detail of this influence backwards, his model would be important historically for that reason alone.
  9. Croll was one of the first people to appreciate the major influence of the great ocean currents on climate, and was the first person to work out the link between the trade winds (essentially driven by convection in the atmosphere stirred up by the Sun heating the surface of the Earth) and the flow of these currents, pushed by the winds. He reasoned that the change in the balance of heat between the hemispheres when one polar region cooled would increase the strength of the trade winds, blowing from the hotter part of the world to the colder region in an attempt to even out the temperature, and also change their direction somewhat. This would change the pattern of the ocean currents. In particular, he noted that a relatively small shift in the westward flowing current of the equatorial Atlantic Ocean could make it flow either northward past the bulge of Brazil and up past North America, or southward past the bulge of Brazil, and down past South America. The potential climatic consequences of such a shift, which could be triggered by a relatively small outside influence, are clear from the Prologue. Once again, Croll was at the forefront of thinking about feedbacks, and the way in which they can magnify small initial disturbances.
  10. Finally, in Climate and Time he pointed out that there is yet a third astronomical influence on climate, which really ought to be taken into account. The tilt of the Earth’s axis (the amount it leans out of the vertical) also varies as time passes,
  11. In his own words, he was ‘under the spell of infinity’. Milankovitch was based in Belgrade for the rest of his working life, and within two years he had found the problem that would occupy him for the next thirty years—but always, strictly speaking as a hobby, worked on at home, alongside his day job as a teacher and engineer.
  12. Milankovitch reckoned that he started out on the task, when he was thirty-two years old, at exactly the right time: Had I been somewhat younger I would not have possessed the necessary knowledge and experience… Had I been older I would not have had enough of that self-confidence that only youth can offer.
  13. Coffee (black) was served by Milankovitch’s wife promptly at ten o’clock, and occupied just ten minutes before it was back to work. Lunch at one was followed by a short siesta and a cigar, then more calculations until six, when work ceased for the day. A stroll before dinner, which was a leisurely meal taken at eight, where the family discussed the topics of the day, was followed by an early night, with bed at ten providing time to read (never anything related to work) for an hour before settling down, usually to think for a considerable time before sleeping. I was always intrigued by his method of work—never rushing nor delegating anything, including even drawing and translating into French or German. He always made thorough preparations by outlining relevant points before precisely detailing the body of the article, then rewriting prior to typing the final copy himself. A simple reply to any correspondence would be treated in the same personal manner.
    1. NOTE: cool study schedule
  14. It was while watching the fighting that he suddenly had a flash of insight which showed him the way around the mathematical logjam that had been holding him up. It was a classic example of the way the answer to a problem you have been struggling with can pop into your head once you stop looking for the solution.
  15. But it was Koppen who pointed out that it is always cold enough for snow to fall in the Arctic in winter, even today, and that the reason that the Northern Hemisphere is not in the grip of a full Ice Age at present is because the ‘extra’ snow melts away again in summer. He reasoned that the way to encourage the ice to spread would be to have a reduction in summer warmth, because then less of the winter snowfall would melt. If less snow melted in summer than fell in winter, the ice sheets would grow—and once they had started to grow, the feedback effect of the way the ice and snow reflect away incoming solar energy would enhance the process.
  16. The best place to find out what the climate of the Earth was like in the past is at the bottom of the deep ocean. Different kinds of sea creatures flourish under different climates, and in particular at different ocean temperatures. Layer by layer, the mud of the sea bed builds up, and each layer contains the remains of the creatures best suited to the climate at the time that layer was being laid down. The solution was to drop hollow steel pipes vertically into the sea bed, so that their weight would drive them into the mud. When the pipes were hauled back on board ship, the mud inside the pipe could be extracted as a cylindrical core, with its layered structure intact. Unfortunately, because of the resistance of the water, which stops the pipes building up any great speed as they fall, this kind of ‘gravity coring’ can only extract cores about a metre long—the pipes just won’t penetrate any deeper into the ooze. This was better than nothing, and provided the first evidence, in the 1930s, for three distinct layers in this top metre of mud in cores from the tropical Atlantic—two layers containing remains corresponding to warm conditions like those in the region today, sandwiching a layer containing remains corresponding to a colder climate.
  17. The obvious candidate for that something else was the way water gets locked up in great ice sheets during an Ice Age. When water evaporates, it is easier for the lighter molecules to escape into the air, so the water left behind tends to have a higher proportion of oxygen-18; much of the evaporated water, relatively rich in oxygen-16 compared with the water left behind (exactly how rich also depends on the temperature), falls as snow during an Ice Age, and gets locked up as ice instead of being recycled back into the sea. So the proportion of oxygen-18 available in the oceans is higher during an Ice Age, even before you take account of the way the proportion of oxygen-18 in their shells is enhanced by the way plankton take up the water.
  18. The isotope technique, it was now clear, gave you, in effect, a measure of the global average temperature, no matter where in the oceans the core had been drilled. But they still needed a way to date accurately the temperature fluctuations that were now clearly apparent in the cores covering the entire Pleistocene Epoch.
  19. When more water is locked up in ice, the sea level falls; but when the ice sheets melt, sea level rises.
  20. Kukla had not invented this technique, although he was one of the first people to apply it to the study of past climates. It depended upon the discovery that the Earth’s magnetic field is not constant, but sometimes (seemingly at random) reverses itself entirely, first fading away to nothing and then building up again in the opposite sense, so that what is now the North magnetic pole becomes the South magnetic pole, and vice versa. The details of exactly how and why this happens are still not known, but it is clearly a result of the way the Earth’s magnetic field is generated, by swirling currents of fluid, electrically-conducting, iron-rich material in the deep interior of our planet.
  21. When reversals happen, they take place in less than 10,000 years (perhaps much less), so they show up sharply in the geological record; but once a particular orientation of the field is established, it may last for millions of years, or only for a few tens of thousands of years. The most recent reversal happened about 780,000 years ago, but the Earth’s magnetic field is weakening at the moment, so we may be living through the early stages of the next reversal.
  22. Since the temperature at the bottom of the sea hardly changes, even during the switch from an Ice Age to an Interglacial, this was the definitive proof that the main influence on the oxygen isotope composition was indeed the advance and retreat of the ice sheets on land, and that the isotopes were recording the pulsebeat of global climate change.
  23. It is concluded that changes in the Earth’s orbital geometry are the fundamental cause of Quaternary ice ages. A model of future climate based on the observed orbital-climate relationships… predicts that the long-term trend over the next several thousand years is towards extensive northern-hemisphere glaciation.
  24. They depend simply on the amount of heat which is required to turn ice at 0°C into water at the same temperature—the latent heat of fusion, which is (in the units used by Mason) 80 calories for every gram of ice melted. Since one calorie is defined as the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius, this means that the heat required to melt one gram of water at the freezing point is enough to heat that same gram of liquid water all the way from 0°C to 80°C. When you are melting glaciers, that adds up to a lot of heat, which is why Mason started the calculation expecting to prove that the change in heat balance of the Northern Hemisphere caused by the astronomical rhythms would not be sufficient for the task. A similar process operates in reverse when water vapour condenses into liquid or water freezes into ice. In each case, latent heat is given out by the water, rather than being taken up. When the vapour condenses into water at the same temperature, 595 calories of heat are released for each gram involved; so when the vapour goes all the way to the solid form and falls as snow, it liberates 675 calories for every gram of snow that falls. This heat goes into warming the surrounding air and the globe generally, while the need for heat to be absorbed in melting snow and ice tends to keep regions covered by winter snow cool well into early summer. Each year, we see the Ice Age cycle repeated in miniature.
  25. In the most extreme example of this chauvinistic approach, geologists set the start of the present epoch, the Holocene, at the beginning of the present Interglacial, 10,000 years ago. This is completely unjustified, since there is no evidence that the present Interglacial marks the end of the Ice Epoch that has persisted for the past few million years; the boundary is really chosen to mark the emergence of human civilization, as much out of hubris as chauvinism. But we will not be concerned here with anything that happened as recently as 10,000 years ago.
  26. South America, moving northward, gradually caught up with North America, so that by about 3 Myr BP the gap between them was closed, and ocean currents that used to flow westward through that gap were being diverted northward as the Gulf Stream, setting up the pattern of circulating ocean currents that we see today. But the drifting continents were also closing the gaps around the Arctic Ocean, so that this northward flow of warm water could not penetrate all the way into the polar sea. The first Northern Hemisphere glaciation of the present Ice Epoch, dated using the radioactive potassium method, occurred about 3.6 million years ago. This was a particularly significant event in the evolution of humankind, because fossil remains show that our ancestors lived in East Africa at that time. It wasn’t so much the cooling itself that affected them, as the fact that, during an Ice Age, with lowered temperatures there is less evaporation from the oceans, and therefore less rainfall. Together with changes in the pattern of circulation of the atmosphere caused by the presence of ice sheets at higher latitudes, this means that with the present geography of the globe when Europe experiences an Ice Age, East Africa experiences a drought. So the forest in which our ancestors lived shrank when the ice advanced. Put all of the evidence together, and it tells us that a forest-dwelling East African proto-ape line gave rise to three separate lines, leading to ourselves, the chimpanzees and the gorillas, between about 3.5 and 4 million years ago, exactly when the climate was changing dramatically. Since both the Ice Ages and the evolutionary changes are tied to the same absolute timescale (ultimately, through radioactive potassium), there is no doubt that the evolutionary changes and the environmental changes occurred at the same time. Conceivably (but highly improbably!) the geological timescale might be adjusted once again; but if it is, the evolutionary timescale will change in step with it. It is hard to escape the conclusion that the changes in the environment in which our ancestors lived were responsible for the three-way split
  27. The distinguishing characteristic of human beings is versatility. Some animals run faster, some are better swimmers, some have better teeth and claws for killing and eating meat, some have better teeth and digestive systems for eating plants, and so on. But people do a little bit of everything quite well.
  28. Without the astronomical rhythms of the Ice Ages, we would probably still be tree-apes. It was the repeated drying out and recovery of the East African forests that pushed our ancestors out on to the plains, forced them to become more versatile, encouraged them to walk upright rather than climbing on branches, and, almost as an afterthought, made us intelligent. Fully modern humans, Homo sapiens sapiens, emerged during the previous Interglacial to our own, by about 100,000 years ago, and had just one more Ice Age to endure before they began to build civilization. We are the product of the latest Ice Epoch, in a way that Agassiz, Croll and Milankovitch could never have guessed, and that realization is the ultimate triumph of the theory of Ice Ages.
What I got out of it
  1. Interesting to learn more about positive and negative feedback loops as they relate to climate. More mild summers in which less snow melts would allow glaciers to grow, reflecting more light and absorbing less heat, allowing the glaciers to grow further, and on and on…Also didn’t know that the natural state of the Earth is in what we call an Ice Age. Without unusually warm summers to melt the ice caps, the Earth would revert back to a deep freeze