Tag Archives: Government

The Power Broker by Robert Caro

  1. The incredible, multi-dimensional story of Robert Moses who helped shape New York through its parks, highways and more by wielding untold of power for an unelected official. Robert Moses build more parks than any man alive, shaped the political structure of NY in his day and achieved so much but he also caused many of the structural declines, congestion and urban decline which plagues NY today. Moses was able to align the incentives of some of the country’s most powerful men and institutions (banks, labor unions, contractors, insurance firms, the media and even the Church) to achieve his goals. He was extraordinarily conceited and hard headed but is perhaps the most prolific builder in history. Moses was able to power through governors and other political machines until he came up against Nelson Rockefeller as governor who was perhaps the only man as ruthless as he.
Key Takeaways
  1. Robert Moses swam at Yale until he threatened to resign and the captain took him up on it
  2. Moses yielded unwieldy power as NY park and construction lead. He saw solutions where other men didn’t and was responsible for much of how NY’s parks look today and for its general layout. He built the vast majority of highways, bridges, public housing, private housing, playgrounds, and more. Hardly any project built during his tenure was done so without his approval
  3. Was a staunch believer on promotion through meritocracy and was the ultimate idealist and optimist. Considered self and convinced the public that he was the antithesis of a politician and was able to even fight off FDR. However, this was more legend than fact and he was very inefficient with his projects. He used economic power towards political ends  He focused corruption and it became so powerful that it took the whole city off of its democratic bias. Fought against patronage and bribes
  4. The longevity of Moses’ power was unbelievable. From 1924-1968 he wielded almost absolute power in NY with hardly any governor or mayor ever challenging him. No other public official has come close to building nearly as many public works as Moses. He was America’s greatest builder and during this time most states had no state parks, few roads and highways. He had the greatest influence on the look and layout of American cities than any other person. He had to move hundreds of thousands of people in order to build his projects, very often the poor. His projects were predominately for the rich And this lead to social strife, lack of housing (although he built more housing than anyone else) and congestion which clogged the city
  5. Moses had the power of an emperor and lived like one with scores of people at his beck and call. He destroyed dozens of men’s political dreams who dared challenge him in some way
  6. Certain aspects he looked to publicize and others he kept very secret
  7. Power is a drug and Moses was one of its largest users
  8. Family were German Jews and he got his ruthlessness from his grandmother and mother. His mother was especially fond of building projects which she helped with while working for settlement projects. He was his mothers favorite, read a lot and very broadly, wrote poetry, was a loner
  9. “Before government can become humanitarian it must become businesslike.”
  10. Before he was in a position to do anything, he already had the vision of how to reform NY from highways to tennis courts. Vision like few others and from a young age was the most able man to take on the task of civil service reform. He did not care at all for money, he simply wanted to see his ideas come to fruition. He was impatient, self assured, very bright and arrogant. His years of civil service reform and standardization lead to zero results as he didn’t adequately take into account greed, self interest and power
  11. By age 30, Moses had no full time paying job, had see none of his research implemented, had a family that was struggling to survive but that all changed once he became Mrs. Moskovitz chief of staff. She was one of the most effective and powerful women in NY government and quickly taught Moses how to actually get things done
  12. A deep, lifelong and fruitful relationship between Moses and governor Smith lead to a lot of reform. Smith turned Moses from idealist to practicalist, willing to sacrifice in order to bring about real change
  13. Moses was one of the best bill drafters and was able to sneak in some legal jargon so that he could take robber barons land legally even if they didn’t want to sell. However this wasn’t even enough and he broke the law but had such strong public opinion behind him that he didn’t get into too much trouble. He started building the park during trials in order to sway the Judge to not waste public money. He eventually won and gained much confidence and political experience through these lawsuits
  14. The congestion, pollution, heat and more creates the perfect storm for a public who desperately needed places to escape the city and cool down. Moses was always on the side fighting for parks which to the public made him inherently on the good side
  15. Moses had incredible vision and was extraordinarily multi dimensional. He knew law, engineering, politics, statesmanship, architecture, psychology and more. He drove his people harder and further than anyone else would. He was an incredible leader who could motivate his men, make them feel like they’re part of something huge and have a good time doing it
  16. Much of what Moses did could not have been achieved without Governor Al Smith. Smith was a visionary and a masterful politician who lead New York through a difficult period and made it one of the most revolutionary and prosperous states
  17. Moses was extremely efficient with his time. Holding meetings in his car, having a desk with no drawers so problems couldn’t hide
  18. Perhaps more than any other quality, Moses’ ability to pick and organize men set him apart and allowed him to achieve what he did
  19. A key way to convince people is to keep your arguments simple. Among his other great abilities was to delegate completely and sell men his grand vision and purpose
  20. Moses and FDR had bad blood due to competing for parks and Moses appropriating rich, powerful men’s land in order to build these parks. When FDR became governor of NY, he wanted to oust Moses but couldn’t as the only way to do so was through charges and public opinion was so strong of Moses
  21. The public parks such as Jones Beach were so successful that the entire nation and even foreign countries visited and were amazed by the size and attention to detail. Almost as many people visited the New York State parks as all other national parks combined. Amazing use of human psychology by making people feel bad for littering by having college kids pick up trash with their hands and having loudspeakers saying “thank you for helping keep our parks clean!”
  22. Ran for governor but lost to Lehman in 1934 due to popularity of new deal and his unwise public attacks
  23. LaGuardia became mayor and kept Moses in power which hurt his relationship with FDR who was now president. Moses regained the favor of the public as it became public that he was trying to be ousted by FDR which they didn’t approve of
  24. LaGuardia’s and Moses’ relationship was kept private as it would have hurt his political reputation. “The Little Flower” helped improve NY’s politics morally but was a very difficult man to work for
  25. Moses was a natural bully and like most bullies, if you stand up to them they will usually back down and respect you more for it
  26. Authority is delegable. Genius is not. Moses was trying to do too much too fast and sacrificed quality
  27. Moses built almost no parks or recreation centers for black citizens in black neighborhoods
  28. Worked at improving congestion through Triborough bridge, Long Island Parkways and more but most of the time it actually increased congestion
  29. Riverside Drive was Moses’ lifelong dream and he had to be amazingly creative and resourceful to come up with the more than $100m to make it a reality. Unfortunately he gave people in cars most of the riverside view as the road was closer to the water than the actual park. Also, he didn’t put much money or attention at all to the parts of the park in poorer areas which was not unusual for Moses
  30. Moses was so ruthless he cut his brother out of his mother’s will and almost never spoke to him or his sister. He convinced everyone his brother had committed some heinous crime though nobody knew what he supposedly did
  31. Moses was money fair and power hungry. Every relationship, appointment and dealing he made would somehow help him gain influence over people or the process to get his vision in place. Few realized what he was doing until it was too late. He was a discrete power broker who often held sway over governors and mayors and often wielded absolute power.  He was a master of aligning multiple powerful people’s or group’s interests behind his vision to accomplish it
  32. Hospitality was one of Moses’ most potent tools. He used he psychological edge of being host very effectively. More deals got done at his brunches, dinners, plays and other events than at city hall
  33. Moses rigidity in only building roads instead of other modes of transportation like subways meant ever increasing congestion – stealing hundreds of hours per person per year and making the whole experience intolerable
  34. Moses’ aura of invincibility lifted some during the Battle of Central Park when he tried to convert part of the park into parking for a high end restaurant. Wealthy, white mothers took on the battle and it was one of the first time in decades that Moses had to back down. After further quarrels with free Shakespeare plays in Central Park further eroded his public image in the late 1950’s but his power was still totally intact as the mayor couldn’t fire him and many still relied on the purse that only Moses had access to
  35. “New money buys things, old money calls in favors.” Referring to Rockefeller family power
  36. Moses’ power began declining once Nelson Rockefeller became governor and eventually lost his role as head of the Parks Commission as well as others. However, the 1965 World’s Fair got him back some of his power But not his popularity. His antagonism annoyed many foreign governments and hardly any major powers ended up being involved. He created a sense of controversy around the fair rather than mystique and wonder. Moses also made the press his enemy which only hurt his image and the World Fair’s
  37. At the age or 79, after 44 years of power, Rockefeller was able to outmaneuver Moses and strip him of what Moses held most dear, power. He was allowed to remain on staff and be in charge of one project but this was merely a pity gesture to a man who was used to have tens of millions at his disposal and dozens of projects
What I got out of it
  1. Amazing portrayal of a man I had never even heard of! Moses achieved so much but also caused many of the problems which plague NY today and will likely plague it for the foreseeable future

The Singapore Story by Lee Kuan Yew

  1. Fascinating account of an amazing man whose vision helped him transform Singapore from a war torn colony into a prosperous, independent nation.
Key Takeaways
  1. Singapore gained independence on August 9, 1965 from Malaysia due to strife between the Malays and Chinese in Malaysia and Singapore
    1. Had to deceive Australia, New Zealand and UK before separation or else they would try to stop it
    2. Just three years before this independence, Singapore and Malay merged. They thought they could become more prosperous by merging and cooperating. They would also be better protected from communist countries like Indonesia
  2. Father worked his way up in the world and was a mentor. He loved everything British
  3. Was in Raffles College when the Japanese bombed Singapore in WWII
    1. End of an era as it ended colonialism for Britain
    2. Japanese reign was awful with little food and much brutality
    3. Key to survival is improvisation
    4. Learned so much – impulses, behavior, psychology, government, business when they were under occupation
      1. Put together a business selling tin cans and gum during the war to feed his family
  4. Went to London to study law. Started at LSE but soon transfered to Cambridge where it was much quieter. His girlfriend and future wife, Choo, came a couple years later
    1. Turned anti-British as their main goal was profit, not good government in the colonies
    2. Socialist ideals appealed to Lee but found that they often don’t work in practice.
  5. “The task of the leaders must be to provide or create for them [the populace] a strong framework within which they can learn, work hard, be productive and be rewarded accordingly. And this is not easy to achieve.”
  6. Back in Singapore he worked as a lawyer but lost faith in the system
    1. Gained popularity by successfully representing the postman union
      1. Saw that the unrepresented masses the key to political power
  7. Started forming own political party in 1954 – People’s Action Party (PAP)
  8. Had to consistently deal with strikes and communist parties vying for power and influence
  9. Lee made Singapore officially trilingual – Malay the main language but English for business and Mandarin for the large Chinese population
  10. Fought adamantly against Marshall and Britain in order to not merge with Malaya and to be independent
  11. Lim Yew Hock took over as Pm after Marshall – didn’t do much to stop communism
  12. Ong became populist mayor but garnered much distrust from the English
  13. Spent a ton of time fighting communist sentiment in Singapore (large Chinese population) and convincing Chinese to be more democratic and socialist
  14. Appealed to the poor masses but this forced him to run a very tight ship since there were almost no donations. Taught him the importance of fiscal responsibility and a tight budget
  15. Campaign was long and difficult as he had to campaign in many languages and traveled to many poor areas
  16. Passed laws to making voting compulsory in Singapore, eliminated undue influence, bribery and corruption
  17. Won and was inaugurated in 1959 – aged 35
  18. Had an incredible impact on Singapore once he was elected – anti-corruption was his main goal, air conditioning was a priority in the government building so that people could work without being drenched in sweat, balanced the budget with tough fiscal cuts, cleaned up Singapore, built community centers, established the Work Brigade to teach the poor discipline and get them off the streets, cleaned up black market activities, guaranteed all kids a spot in school and aimed to bring equality to women
  19. Early problems with economy, civil servants, communists, language difficulties, focused on not looking like a puppet to the West
  20. Malaya didn’t want to merge because of large Chinese population in Singapore but were more worried about an independent, communist Singapore
  21. “The Plen” was a high ranking communist leader that Lee talked to at times behind the scenes
  22. Lee wanted a merger with Malaya because Singapore depended on them for tin and rubber in their economy
    1. Many in Singapore worried they would become second class citizens if they did
  23. Lee was extremely hard working, good at reading people and knowing what they wanted and what drives them. He was clear and confident once he had a goal to reach for
  24. There was much haggling on the details of the merger – Lee wanted free market, reduced corruption but Malaya was not too eager to appease
  25. 1962-63 Lee really won the support of Singapore through tours and public speeches
  26. Relations with Indonesia were fraying over Borneo and communism but it never lead to violence
  27. Traveled all over Africa to help the newly merged Malaysia gain visibility, support and respect
  28. Within two years the Tunku (Malaysian leader) wanted Singapore out of the Malay federal parliament because they were causing too much trouble. Wanted Singapore to handle their own affairs but cooperate with Malaya in terms of defense and external affairs
  29. “I had received an unforgettable lesson in decolonization, on how crucial it was to have social cohesion and capable, effective government to take power from the colonial authority. When the leader did not preserve the unity of the country by sharing power with the chiefs of the minority tribes, but excluded them, the system soon broke down. Worse, when misguided policies based on half-digested theories of socialism and redistribution of wealth were compounded by less than competent government, societies formerly held together by colonial power splintered, with appalling consequences.”
  30. Singapore gained independence from Malaya in 1965 after much political, social and racial strife. The Tunku was worried both about the large Chinese population and Lee’s very apparent ability and ambition. Malaysia and Singapore ended on good terms and agreed to still cooperate
What I got out of it
  1. Impressive man who overcame great odds and a very difficult situation in order to lay the foundation for what would one day become an economic powerhouse