JD Vance wrote this book not because he’s accomplished anything extraordinary, but because he’s accomplished something ordinary. His poor upbringing and difficult childhood indicates he’d never escape but he was able to graduate from Yale Law School.
There is of course inequality but there is also a lack of agency, of responsibility, of accountability that JD has found in his cohort
The honor culture of the south leads many into violence and revenge, not being able to let an insult go
For most hillbillies, the only way up is to move out. There are astonishing numbers of people moving away from the Appalachian region every year, in pursuit of a livable wage
People don’t expect much of themselves because the people around them aren’t doing very much
Despite all the social and peers pressures, JD received a different message at home that it was alright to learn and to strive and that made all the difference to him
Parent’s desire for their kids to do better didn’t just relate to education, work, and pay, but to relationships too. Low expectations for those living in the Appalachians is hurting every generation
JD had no role models for relationships and thought that screaming, violence, and hitting was how adults spoke to each other
We are all very bad at judging ourselves
His grandma was his most important positive influence as she showed him not only what was possible but how to get there. She helped him raise what he expected out of himself
The instability in JD’s life was so disruptive. He was in several different homes with several different father figures in only a couple of years. Once he had a safe, stable place with grandma, he was able to focus and do his work
JD enlisted in the marine corps and graduating was his proudest accomplishment. He got out of his learned helplessness and it made him see and question things once he returned home
Sometimes those in power try to help the helpless without truly understanding their situation, which often ends up with negative consequences
When a group believes that hard work will pay off, they all work harder and go all-in, often with amazing results
The predominant emotion in lower middle class working white Americans is a sense of pessimism and a lack of accountability. They’re not willing to work hard and be consistent and blame others or the government for their problems
Most successful people don’t even play the same game as the people JD grew up with. He had no idea how important networking, one’s social capital, was for one’s prospects. He learned this during his time at Yale Law and going through the interview/admissions process
What I got out of it
An amazing dive into the life of poor Appalachians and the struggles they face. JD told his story in such an open, transparent, vulnerable way and gave me insight into situations I didn’t appreciate or know much about before. Inspiring how hard JD worked to escape his situation, his learned helplessness
Henry Ford recounts his life and the business philosophy which helped him create one of the most innovative and dominant companies of all time. “The essence of my idea is that waste and greed block the delivery of true service. Both waste and greed are unnecessary. Waste is due largely to not understanding what one does, or being careless in doing of it. Greed is merely a species of nearsightedness. I have striven toward manufacturing with a minimum of waste, both of materials and of human effort, and then toward distribution at a minimum profit, depending for the total profit upon the volume of distribution. In the process of manufacturing I want to distribute the maximum of wage – that is, the maximum of buying power. Since also this makes for a minimum cost and we sell at a minimum profit, we can distribute a product in consonance with buying power. Thus everyone who is connected with us – either as a manager, worker or purchaser – is the better for our existence. The institution that we have erected is performing a service. That is the only reason I have for talking about it. The principles of that service are these:
An absence of fear of the future and of veneration for the past. One who fears the future, who fears failure, limits his activities. Failure is only the opportunity more intelligently to begin again. There is no disgrace in honest failure; there is disgrace in fearing to fail. What is past is useful only as it suggests ways and means for progress.
A disregard of competition. Whoever does a thing best ought to be the one to do it. It is criminal to try to get business away from another man – criminal because one is then trying to lower for personal gain the condition of one’s fellow man – to rule by force instead of by intelligence.
The putting of service before profit. Without a profit, business cannot extend. There is nothing inherently wrong about making a profit. Well–conducted business enterprise cannot fail to return a profit, but profit must and inevitably will come as a reward for good service. It cannot be the basis – it must be the result of service.
Manufacturing is not buying low and selling high. It is the process of buying materials fairly and, with the smallest possible addition of cost, transforming those materials into a consumable product and giving it to the consumer. Gambling, speculating, and sharp dealing, tend only to clog this progression.”
Business exists for service but the present system does not permit of the best service because it encourages every type of waste. It keeps many men from getting the full return from service
The natural thing to do is work – to recognize that prosperity and happiness can be obtained only through honest effort. Human ills flow largely from attempting to escape from this natural course. I have no suggestion which goes beyond accepting in its fullest this principle of nature. I take it for granted that we must work. All that we have done comes as the result of a certain insistence that since we must work it is better to work intelligently and forehandedly; that the better we do our work the better off we shall be. All of which I conceive to be merely elemental common sense.
As we serve our job we serve the world – Do your job! As you do anything, is how you do everything
Business is never as healthy as when, like a chicken, a certain amount of scratching has to be done. Things cannot come too easily
It is what a thing does, not what it is meant to do, that matters. For anyone to be required to use more force than is absolutely necessary for the job on hand is waste
The principal part of the chisel is the cutting edge.
Above all else, first find a good idea. Given a good idea to start with, it is better to concentrate on perfecting it than to hunt around for a new idea. One idea at a time is about as much as anyone can handle
The way I have always worked is to draw out a plan and work out every detail of the plan before starting to build. Many inventors fail because they do not distinguish between planning and experimenting
There was no way the Model T could not be successful for it was not made in a day. Every detail had been fully tested in practice
There is an immense amount to be learned simply by tinkering with things. It is not possible solely to learn from books. Can get ideas from them but must use one’s brains to apply them
I loved watching and almost went into the business but did not because I figured out that watches are not universal necessities and people generally would not buy them. Even then I wanted to produce something in quantity
I read everything I could find, but the greatest knowledge came from the work
No work with interest is ever hard
It does not pay to hurry
There was no demand for automobiles when I first started. There never is for new articles
Early on, the general population only cared for speed. Although Ford thought that raw speed was a poor metric to optimize for, he knew his consumers and what they wanted. So, he built a car to beat the world’s fastest drivers and got press that way. He balanced what the consumers wanted while also keeping in mind and knowing what the consumer did not know they wanted.
The most surprising thing I found about business was the large concern for finance and low concern for service
Time spent fighting the competition is wasted – it had better be spent doing the work
The man who has the largest capacity for work and thought is bound to succeed
The whole progress of the company had always been financed out of earnings. Everything is being done out of earnings. That is our policy
No stunt and no advertising will sell any article for any length of time
Money is only worth what it will help you produce or buy. No more
Worst of all advertisements is a dissatisfied customer
The refinement and use of vanadium made the universal car possible as it was light and strong and it had to have these attributes:
Quality in material to give service in use. Vanadium steel is the strongest, toughest, and most lasting of steels. It forms the foundation and super–structure of the cars. It is the highest quality steel in this respect in the world, regardless of price
Simplicity in operation – because the masses are not mechanics
I believed then, although I said very little about it because of the novelty of the idea, that it ought to be possible to have parts so simple and so inexpensive that the menace of expensive hand repair work would be entirely eliminated. The parts could be made so cheaply that it would be less expensive to buy new ones than to have old ones repaired. They could be carried in hardware shops just as nails or bolts are carried. I thought that it was up to me as the designer to make the car so completely simple that no one could fail to understand it.
That works both ways and applies to everything. The less complex an article, the easier it is to make, the cheaper it may be sold, and therefore the greater number may be sold
Power in sufficient quantity
Absolute reliability – because of the varied uses to which the cars would be put and the variety of roads over which they would travel
Lightness. With the Ford there are only 7.95 pounds to be carried by each cubic inch of piston displacement. This is one of the reasons why Ford cars are “always going,” wherever and whenever you see them – through sand and mud, through slush, snow, and water, up hills, across fields and road less plains
Control – to hold its speed always in hand, calmly and safely meeting every emergency and contingency either in the crowded streets of the city or on dangerous roads. The planetary transmission of the Ford gave this control and anybody could work it. That is the “why” of the saying: “Anybody can drive a Ford.” It can turn around almost anywhere
The more a motor car weights, naturally the more fuel and lubricants are used in the driving; the lighter the weight, the lighter the expense of operation. The light weight of the Ford car in its early years was used as an argument against it. Now that is all changed
Any customer can have a car painted any color he wants so long that it is black
Principles of assembly:
Place the tools and the men in the sequence of the operation so that each component part shall travel the least possible distance while in the process of finishing
Use work slides or some other form of carrier so that when a workman completes his operation, he drops the part always in the same place – which place must always be the most convenient place to his hand – and if possible have gravity carry the part to the next workman for his operation
Use sliding assembling lines by which the parts to be assembled are delivered at convenient distances
The net result of the application of these principles is the reduction of the necessity for thought on the part of the worker and the reduction of his movements to a minimum
The laws of business are like the laws of gravity and the man who opposes them feels their power
Very worst time to try to raise money is when bankers think you need it. And that is the danger of having bankers in business. They think solely in terms of money. They think of a factory as making money, not goods. They want to watch the money, not the efficiency of production. They cannot comprehend that a business never stands still, it must go forward or go back. They regard a reduction in prices as a throwing away of profit instead of as a building of business
Adhering and honoring the power of the Red Queen Effect. If you are not moving forward, you are moving backward. As your ecosystem is continuously moving forward, if you’re simply standing still it is the same as falling behind
This season demonstrated conclusively to me that it was time to put the new policy in force. The salesman, before I had announced the policy, were spurred by the great sales to think that even greater sales might be had only if we had more models. It is strange how, just as soon as an article becomes successful, somebody starts to think that it would be more successful if only it were different. There is a tendency to keep monkeying with styles and to spoil a good thing by changing it. The salesmen were insistent on increasing the line. They listened to the 5%, the special customers who could say what they wanted, and forgot about the 95% who just bought without making a fuss. No business can improve unless it pays the closets possible attention to complaints and suggestions. If there is any defect in serve then that must be instantly and rigorously investigated, but when the suggestion is only as to style, one has to make sure whether it is not merely a personal whim that is being voiced. Salesman always want to cater to whims instead of acquiring sufficient knowledge of their product to be able to explain to the customer the whim that what they have will satisfy his every requirement – that is, of course, provided what they have does satisfy these requirements.
Everything can always be done better than it is being done
With the tractor we followed the exact same course as with the automobile. Each part had to be as strong as it was possible to make, the parts had to be few in number, and the whole had to admit of quantity production
Ford bought the Detroit, Toledo and Ironton Railway in 1921 and applied “industry principles” – turned a terribly performing, unreliable line into a powerhouse. The railroads in general have broken down, and if the former conduct of the DTI is any criterion of management in general there is no reason in the world why they should not have broken down. Too many railroads are run, not from the offices of practical men, but from banking offices, and the principles of procedure, the whole outlook, are financial – not transportational, but financial. There has been a breakdown simply because more attention has been paid to railroads as factors in the stock market than as servants of the people. Outworn ideas have been retained, development has been practically stopped, and railroad men with vision have not been set free to grow. Will a billion dollars solve that sort of trouble? No, a billion dollars will only make the difficulty one billion dollars worse. The purpose of the billion is simply to continue the present methods of railroad management, and it is because of the present methods that we have any railroad difficulties at all.
It is one of nature’s compensations to withdraw prosperity from the business which does not serve
Being greedy for money is the surest way not to get it, but when one serves for the sake of service – for the satisfaction of doing that which one believes to be right – then the money abundantly takes care of itself. Money comes naturally as the result of service. And it is absolutely necessary to have money. But we do not want to forget that the end of money is not ease but the opportunity to perform more service. In my mind nothing is more abhorrent than a life of ease. None of us has any right to ease. There is no place in civilization for the idler
I disagree slightly on his point about the idler. Some idle and leisure time has been a sure sign of progress and civilization throughout history. This “down” time is necessary for thought, innovation, breakthroughs, to gain perspective and see things differently. This cannot be the state of the whole population but it must exist for a select few.
He is a wise merchant who would rather take less profit and keep business moving than keep his stock at high prices and bar the progress of his community. A man like that is an asset to a town. He has a clear head. He is better able to swing the adjustment through his inventory than through cutting down the wages of his delivery men – through cutting down their ability to buy
I have heard it said, in fact I believe it is quite a current thought, that we have taken skill out of work. We have not. We have put in skill. We have put a higher skill into planning, management, and tool building, and the results of that skill are enjoyed by the man who is not skilled
The factory keeps no record of experiments. The foremen and superintendents remember what has been done. If a certain method has formerly been tried and failed, somebody will remember it – but I am not particularly anxious for the men to remember what someone else has tried to do in the past, for then we might quickly accumulate far too many things that could not be done. That is one of the troubles with extensive records. If you keep on recording all of your failures you will shortly have a list showing that there is nothing left for you to try – whereas it by no means follows because one man has failed in a certain method that another man will not succeed. We get some of our best results from letting fools rush in where angels fear to tread. None of our men are “experts.” We have most unfortunately found it necessary to get rid of a man as soon as he thinks himself an expert – because no one ever considers himself expert if he really knows his job. A man who knows a job sees so much more to be done than he has done, that he is always pressing forward and never gives up an instant of thought to how good and how efficient he is. Thinking always ahead, thinking always of trying more, brings a state of mind in which nothing is impossible. The moment one gets into the “expert” state of mind a great number of things become impossible
That which one has to fight hardest against in bringing together a large number of people to do work is excess organization and consequent red tape. To my mind there is no bent of mind more dangerous than that which is sometimes described as the “genius for organization.” This usually results in the birth of a great big chart showing, after the fashion of a family tree, how authority ramifies. The tree is heavy with nice round berries, each of which bears the name of a man or of an office. Every man has a title and certain duties which are strictly limited by the circumference of his berry. Now a business, in my way of thinking, is not a machine. It is a collection of people who are brought together to do work and not to write letters to one another. It is not necessary for any one department to know what any other department is doing. If a man is doing his work he will not have time to take up any other work. It is the business of those who plan the entire work to see that all of the departments are working properly toward the same end. It is not necessary to have meetings to establish good feeling between individuals or departments. It is not necessary for people to love each other in order to work together. Too much good fellowship may indeed be a very bad thing, for it may lead to one man trying to cover up the faults of another. That is bad for both men.
We make the individual responsibility complete. The workman is absolutely responsible for his work. The straw boss is responsible for the workmen under him. The foreman is responsible for his group. The department head is responsible for the department. The general superintendent is responsible for the whole factory. Every man has to know what is going on in his sphere
The habit of acting shortsightedly is a hard one to break. What can be done? Nothing. No rules or laws will affect the changes. But enlightened self–interest will. It takes a little while for enlightenment to spread. But spread it must, for the concern in which both employer and employees work to the same end of service is bound to forge ahead in business
Waste is prevented by far-sighted not by short-sighted men. Short-sighted men think first of money. They cannot see waste. They think of service as altruistic instead of as the most practical thing in the world. They cannot get far enough away from the little things to see the big things – to see the biggest thing of all, which is that opportunist production from a purely money standpoint is the least profitable. Service can be based upon altruism, but that sort of service is not usually the best. The sentimental trips up the practical.
Capital that is not constantly making conditions of daily labor better and the reward of daily labor more just, is not fulfilling its highest function. The highest use of capital is not to make more money, but to make money do more service for the betterment of life. Unless we in our industries are helping to solve the social problem, we are not doing our principal work. We are not fully serving.
More men are beaten than fail. It is not wisdom they need or money, or brilliance or “pull,” but just plain gristle and bone. This rude, simple, primitive power which we call “stick-to-it-iveness” is the uncrowded king of the world of endeavor. People are utterly wrong in their slant upon things. They see the success that men have made and somehow they appear to be easy. But that is a world away from the facts. It is failure that is easy. Success is always hard. A man can fail in ease; he can succeed only by paying out all that he has and is. It is this which makes success so pitiable a thing if it be in lines that are not useful and uplifting.
Business should be on the side of peace, because peace is business’ best asset
France has something to give the world of which no competition can cheat her. So has Italy. So has Russia. So have the countries of South America. So has Japan. So has Britain. So has the United States. The sooner we get back to a basis of natural specialties and drop this free–for–all system of grab, the sooner we shall be sure of international self-respect – and international peace. Trying to take the trade of the world can promote war. It cannot promote prosperity. Someday even the international bankers will learn this.
You can hardly have too much harmony in business. But you can go too far in picking men because they harmonize. You can have so much harmony that there will not be enough of the thrust and counter thrust which is life – enough of the competition which means effort and progress. It is one thing for an organization to be working harmoniously toward one object, but it is another thing for an organization to work harmoniously with each individual unit of itself. Some organizations use up so much energy and time maintaining a feeling of harmony that they have no force left to work for the object for which the organization was created. The organization is secondary to the object. The only harmonious organization that is worth anything is an organization in which all the members are bent on the one main purpose – to get along toward the objective. A common purpose, honestly believed in, sincerely desired – that is the great harmonizing principle.
I pity the poor fellow who is so soft and flabby that he must always have “an atmosphere of good feeling” around him before he can do his work. There are such men. And in this end, unless they obtain enough mental and moral hardiness to lift them out of their soft reliance on “Feeling,” they are failures. Not only are they business failures; they are character failures also; it is as if their bones never attained a sufficient degree of hardness to enable them to stand on their own feet. There is altogether too much reliance on good feeling in our business organizations. People have too great a fondness for working with the people they like. In the end it spoils a good many valuable qualities.
We began to manufacture according to a creed – a creed which was at that time unknown in business. The new is always thought odd, and some of us are so constituted that we can never get over thinking that anything which is new must be odd and probably queer. The mechanical working out of our creed is constantly changing. We are continually finding new and better ways of putting it into practice, but we have not found it necessary to alter the principles, and I cannot imagine how it might ever be necessary to alter them, because I hold that they are absolutely universal and must lead to a better and wider life for all. If I did not think so I would not keep working – for the money that I make is in consequent. Money is useful only as it serves to forward by practical example the principle that business is justified only as it serves, that it must always give more to the community than it takes away, and that unless everybody benefits by the existence of a business then that business should not exist.
Progress comes from a generous form of rivalry. Bad competition is personal. It works for the aggrandizement of some individual or group. It is a sort of warfare. It is inspired by a desire to “get” someone. It is wholly selfish. That is to say, its motive is not pride in the product, nor a desire to excel in service, nor yet a wholesome ambition to approach to scientific methods of production. It is moved simply by the desire to crowd out others and monopolize the market for the sake of the money returns. That being accomplished, it always substitutes a product of inferior quality.
All the wise people demonstrated conclusively that the engine could not compete with steam. They never thought that it might carve out a career for itself. That is the way with wise people – they are so wise and practical that they always know to a dot just why something cannot be done; they always know the limitations. That is why I never employ an expert in full bloom. If I ever wanted to kill opposition by unfair means I would endow the opposition with experts. They would have so much good advice that I could be sure they would do little work.
My idea was then and still is that if a man did his work well, the price he would get for that work, the profits and all financial matters, would care for themselves and that a business ought to start small and build itself up and out of its earnings. If there are no earnings then that is a signal to the owner that he is wasting his time and does not belong in that business
And I also noticed a tendency among many men in business to feel that their lot was hard – they worked against a day when they might retire and live on an income – get out of the strife. Life to them was a battle to be ended as soon as possible. That was another point I could not understand, for as I reasoned, life is not a battle except with our own tendency to sag with the down pull of “getting settled.” If to petrify is success all one has to do is to humor the lazy side of the mind but if to grow is success, then one must wake up anew every morning and keep awake all day. I saw great businesses become but the ghost of a name because someone thought they could be managed just as they were always managed, and though the management may have been most excellent in its day, its excellence consisted in its alertness to this day, and not in slavish following of its yesterdays. Life, as I see it, is not a location, but a journey. Even the man who most feels himself “settled” is not settled – he is probably sagging back. Everything is in flux, and was meant to be. Life flows. We may live at the same number of the street, but it is never the same man who lives there
The public is wary. It thinks that the price cut is a fake and it sits around waiting for a real cut. We saw much of that last year. If, on the contrary, the economies of making are transferred at once to the price and if it is well known that such is the policy of the manufacturer, the public will have confidence in him and will respond. They will trust him to give honest value. So standardization may seem bad business unless it carries with it the plan of constantly reducing the price at which the article is sold. And the price has to be reduced (this is very important) because of the manufacturing economies that have come about and not because the falling demand by the public indicates that it is not satisfied with the price. The public should always be wondering how it is possible to give so much for the money. Standardization (to use the word as I understand it) is not just taking one’s best–selling article and concentrating on it. It is planning day and night and probably for years, first on something which will best suit the public and on how it should be made. The exact processes of manufacturing will develop of themselves. Then, if we shift the manufacturing from the profit to the service basis, we shall have a real business in which the profits will be all that anyone could desire.
My associates were not convinced that it was possible to restrict our cars to a single model. The automobile trade was following the old bicycle trade, in which every manufacturer thought it necessary to bring out a new model each year and to make it so unlike all previous models that those who had bought the former models would want to get rid of the old and buy the new. That was supposed to be good business. It is the same idea that women submit to in their clothing and hats. That is not service – it seeks only to provide something new, not something better. It is extraordinary how firmly rooted is the notion that business – continuous selling – depends not on satisfying the customer once and for all, but on first getting his money for one article and then persuading him he ought to buy a new and different one. The plan which I then had in the back of my head but to which we were not then sufficiently advanced to give expression, was that, when a model was settled upon then every improvement on that model should be interchangeable with the old model, so that a car should never get out of date. It is my ambition to have every piece of machinery, or other non–consumable product that I turn out, so strong and so well made that no one ought ever to have to buy a second one. A good machine of any kind ought to last as long as a good watch.
“How soon will Ford blow up?” Nobody knows how many thousand times it has been asked since. It is asked only because of the failure to grasp that a principle rather than an individual at work, and the principle is so simple it seems almost mysterious. Modern methods applied in a big way have not only brought the cost of axe handles down to a fraction of their former cost – but they have immensely improved the product. It was the application of these same methods to the making of the Ford car that at the very start lowered the price and heightened the quality. We just developed an idea. The nucleus of a business may be an idea. That is, an inventor or a thoughtful workman works out a new and better way to serve some established human need; the idea commends itself, and people want to avail themselves of it. In this way a single individual may prove, through his idea or discovery, the nucleus of a business. But the creation of the body and bulk of that business is shared by everyone who has anything to do with it. No manufacturer can say: “I built this business” – if he has required the help of thousands of men in building it. It is a joint production. Everyone employed in it has contributed something to it. By working and producing they make it possible for the purchasing world to keep coming to that business for the type of service it provides, and thus they help establish a custom, a trade, a habit which supplies them with a livelihood. That is the way our company grew.
My effort is in the direction of simplicity. Real simplicity means that which gives the best service and is the most convenient in use. Start with an article that suits and then study to find some way of eliminating all the useless parts. This applies to everything – a shoe, a dress, a house, a piece of machinery, a railroad, a steamship, an airplane. As we cut out useless parts and simplify necessary ones we also cut down the cost of making. This is simple logic, but oddly enough the ordinary process starts with a cheapening of the manufacturing instead of with a simplifying of the article. The start ought to be with the article. First we ought to find whether it is as well made as it should be – does it give the best possible service? Then – are the materials the best or merely the most expensive? Then – can its complexity and weight be cut down? And so on.
Do not scatter energies over collateral objects
Don’t make the marginal the core, nor the core marginal
On Hiring & Training
Men of a more mechanical turn of mind, but with no desire for responsibility, go into the tool–making departments where they receive considerably more pay than in production proper. But the vast majority of men want to stay put. They want to be led. They want to have everything done for them and to have no responsibility. Therefore, in spite of the great mass of men, the difficult is not to discover men to advance, but men who are willing to be advanced.
Whatever expertness in fabrication that has been developed has been due to men. I think that if men are unhampered and they know that they are serving, they will always put all of mind and will into even the most trivial of tasks
Can only learn and accomplish certain things when everyone is all–in
To produce, produce; to get a system that will reduce production to a fine art; to put production on such a basis as will provide means for expansion and the building of still more shops, the production of still more thousands of useful things – that is the real industrial idea. The negation of the industrial idea is the effort to make a profit out of speculation instead of out of work. There are short–sighted men who cannot see that business is bigger than any one man’s interests. Business is a process of give and take, live and let live. It is cooperation among many forces and interests. Whenever you find a man who believes that business is a river whose beneficial flow ought to stop as soon as it reaches him you find a man who thinks he can keep business alive by stopping its circulation. He would produce wealth by this stopping of the produce of wealth
Not only is a title injurious to the wearer, it often has ill effects on others as well. There is perhaps no greater single source of personal dissatisfaction among men than the fact that the title-bearers are not always the real leaders. Everybody acknowledges a real leader – a man who is fit to plan and command. And when you find a real leader who bears a title, you will have to inquire of someone else what his title is. He doesn’t boast about it
People will eventually flow towards talent rather than title. It is injurious when these two don’t align
The health of every organization depends on every member – whatever his place – feeling that everything that happens to come to his notice relating the welfare of the business is his own job. Railroads have gone to the devil under the eyes of the departments that say: “Oh, that doesn’t come under our department. Department X, 100 miles away, has that in charge.”
We do not hire a man’s history, all that he needs is the desire to work
We do not, to repeat, care what a man has been. If he has gone to college he ought to be able to go ahead faster, but he has to start at the bottom and prove his ability. Every man’s future rests solely with himself. There is far too much loose talk about men being unable to obtain recognition. With us every man is fairly certain to get the exact recognition he deserves
The will to be skilled is not general and even if it were, the courage to follow through with the training is not.
Men tend to not like changes that they themselves do not suggest
Against popular opinion, people tend to be fine with change if there is no prospect for loss. People never seem to mind change if it involves a promotion…
I did a thorough investigation into every job at the plant to determine which could be done by the disabled. These bedridden or disabled men were often able to do just as well as the men in the shop and, in fact, their production was about 20%, I believe, above the usual shop production
Suggestions for improvement can come from anywhere
No man is independent as long as he has to depend on another man to help him. It is a reciprocal relation – the boss is the partner of his worker, the worker is partner of his boss. And such being the case, it is useless for one group or the other to assume that it is the one indispensable unit
There is nothing to running a business by custom – to saying: “I pay the going rate of wages.” The same man would not so easily say: “I have nothing better or cheaper to sell than any one has.” No manufacturer in his right mind would contend that buying only the cheapest materials is the way to make certain of manufacturing the best article. Then why do we hear so much talk about the “liquidation of labor” and the benefits that will flow to the country from cutting wages – which means only the cutting of buying power and the curtailing of the home market? What good is industry if it be so unskillfully managed as not to return a living to everyone concerned? No question is more important than that of wages – most of the people in the country live on wages. The scale of their living – the rate of their wages – determines the prosperity of the country
If they see the fruits of hard work in their pay envelope – proof that harder work means higher pay – then also they begin to learn that they are a part of the business, and that its success depends on them and their success depends on it. The business limits the wages, but does anything limit the business The business limits itself by following bad precedents
There will never be a system invented which will do away with the necessity of work. Nature has seen to that. Idle hands and minds were never intended for any one of us. Work is our sanity, our self–respect, our salvation. So far from being a curse, work is the greatest blessing. Each social justice flows only out of honest work. The man who contributes much should take away much. Therefore no element of charity is present in the paying of wages. The kind of workman who gives the business the best that is in him is the best kind of workman a business can have. And he cannot be expected to do this indefinitely without proper recognition of his contribution The man who comes to the day’s job feeling that no matter how much he may give, it will not yield him enough of a return to keep him beyond want, is not in shape to do his day’s work. He is anxious and worried, and it all reacts to the detriment of his work. But if a man feels that his day’s work is not only supplying his basic need, but is also giving him a margin of comfort and enabling him to give his boys and girls their opportunity and his wife some pleasure in life, then his job looks good to him and he is free to give it of his best. This is a good thing for him and a good thing for the business. The man who does not get a certain satisfaction out of his day’s work is losing the best part of his pay. When we are all in this business together, we all ought to have some share in the profits – by way of a good wage, or salary, or added compensation. And that is beginning now quite generally to be recognized.
Such are the fundamental truth of wages. They are partnership distributions
When can a wage be considered adequate? How much of a living is reasonably expected from work? Have you ever considered what a wage ought to do? To say that it should pay the cost of living is to say almost nothing. The cost of living depends largely upon the efficiency of production and transportation; and the efficiency of these is the sum of the efficiencies of the management and the workers. Good work, well managed, ought to result in high wages and low living costs. If we attempt to regulate wages on living costs, we get nowhere. The cost of living is a result and we cannot expect to keep a result constant if we keep altering the factors which produce the result. When we try to regulate wages according to the cost of living, we are imitating a dog chasing his tail. And, anyhow, who is competent to say just what kind of living we shall base the costs on? Let us broaden our view and see what a wage is to the workmen – and what it ought to be.
Employees must have stability, a path to the dream, financial and non–financial recognition as well as a calm, secure, safe environment. Without these core attributes, they will never settle down and be able to focus fully on their job. There will be scarcity in the air and they will hoard their time, abilities, focus and more. There are certain things that can only be accomplished when people are all-in.
Pay enough so a parent can potentially stay at home with their kids if they want. This can have knock on effects of better-raised children who become better contributors which can lead to a better society
If we can distribute high wages, then that money is going to be spent and it will serve to make storekeepers and distributors and manufacturers and workers in other lines more prosperous and their prosperity will be reflected in our sales. Country-wide high wages spell country-wide prosperity, provided, however, the higher wages are paid for higher production. Paying high wages and lowering production is starting down the incline toward dull business
The objection to a plan which pays out yearly profit sharing is that a man did not get his share until long after his work was done and then it came to him almost in the way of a present. It is always unfortunate to have wages tinged with charity
Must respect the goal-gradient effect. Monthly incentive payments rather than yearly so that people are continuously motivated. People will have clear physiological changes when a goal is near and in sight. Marathoners can even begin to sprint at the sight of a finish line!
We wanted to pay these high wages so that the business would be on a lasting foundation. We were not distributing anything – we were building for the future. A low wage business is always insecure
If you expect a man to give his time and energy, fix his wages so that he will have no financial worries. It pays. Our profits after paying good wages and a bonus – which bonus used to run around ten millions a year before we changed the system – show that paying good wages is the most profitable way of doing business.
These kind of policies, though easily classified as “expensive,” don’t cost, but pay.
The people, once paid enough and incented in the right way, make supervision unnecessary
Once the employees become self-policing, you unleash an incredible amount of energy, time, industriousness, ingenuity, creativity that before was spent “managing” people, “politicking” and making sure others were doing their job. Now, you can hardly stop them from working because their self-interest is tied to the success of the company.
Where does the money to make the wheels go round come from? From the consumer, of course. And success in manufacturing is based solely upon an ability to serve that consumer to his liking. He may be served by quality or he may be served by price. He is best served by the highest quality at the lowest price, and any man who can give to the consumer the highest quality at the lowest price is bound to be a leader in business, whatever the kind of article he makes. There is no getting away from this
On Poverty & Privilege
Poverty springs from a number of sources, the more important of which are controllable. So does special privilege. I think it is entirely feasible to abolish both poverty and special privilege – and there can be no question but that their abolition is desirable. Both are unnatural, but it is work, not law, to which we must look for results.
Any plan which starts with the assumption that men are or ought to be equal is unnatural and therefore unworkable. There can be no feasible or desirable process of leveling down. Such a course only promotes poverty by making it universal instead of exceptional
The cure of poverty is not in personal economy but in better production. The “thrift” and “economy” ideas have been overworked. The word “economy” represents a fear. The great and tragic fact of waste is impressed on a mind by some circumstance, usually of a most materialistic kind. There comes a violent reaction against extravagance – the mind catches hold of the idea of “economy.” But it only flies from a greater to a lesser evil; it does not make the full journey from error to truth. Economy is the rule of half-alive minds. There can be no doubt that it is better than waste neither can be any doubt that is not as good as use. People who pride themselves on their economy take it as a virtue. But what is more pitiable than a poor, pinched mind spending the rich days and years clutching a few bits of metal? What can be fine about paring the necessities of life to the very quick? We all know “economical people” who seem to be niggardly even about the amount of air they breathe and the amount of appreciation they will allow themselves to give to anything. They shrivel – body and soul. Economy is waste: it is waste of the juices of life, the sap of living. For there are two kinds of waste – that of the prodigal who throws his substance away in riotous living, and that of the sluggard who allows his substance to rot from non-use. The rigid economizer is in danger of being classed with the sluggard. Extravagance is usually a reaction from suppression of expenditure. Economy is likely to be a reaction from extravagance.
Most men who are laboriously saving a few dollars would do better to invest those few dollars – first in themselves and then in some useful work. Eventually they would have more to save. Young men ought to invest rather than save. They ought to invest in themselves to increase creative value; after they have taken themselves to the peak of usefulness, then will be time enough to think of laying aside, as a fixed policy, a certain substantial share of income. You are not “saving” when you prevent yourself from becoming more productive. You are really taking away from your ultimate capital; you are reducing the value of one of nature’s investments. The principle of use is the true guide. Use is positive, active, life-giving. Use is alive. Use adds to the sum of good.
The difficulty seems to be in getting to look beyond to the causes. More people can be moved to help a poor family than can be moved to give their minds toward the removal of poverty altogether.
I have no patience with professional charity, or with any sort of commercialized humanitarianism. The moment human helpfulness is systematized organized, commercialized and professionalized, the heart of it is extinguished, and it becomes a cold and clammy thing. Professional charity is not only cold but it hurts more than it helps. It degrades the recipients and drugs their self–respect. Worse than this encouragement of childish wistfulness, instead of training for self–reliance and self–sufficiency, was the creation of a feeling of resentment which nearly always overtakes the objects of charity. People often complain of the “ingratitude” of those whom they help. Nothing is more natural. In the first place, precious little of our so-called charity is ever real charity, offered out of a heart full of interest and sympathy. In the second place, no person ever relishes being in a position where he is forced to take favors.
Industry organized for service removes the need for philanthropy. Philanthropy, no matter how noble its motive, does not make for self-reliance. We must have self-reliance. A community is the better for being discontented, for being dissatisfied with what it has. I do not mean the petty, daily, nagging, gnawing sort of discontent, but a broad, courageous sort of discontent which believes that everything which is done can and ought to be eventually done better. Industry organized for service – and the workingman as well as the leader must serve – can pay wages sufficiently large to permit every family to be both self-reliant and self-supporting. A philanthropy that spends its time and money in helping the world to do more for itself is far better than the sort which merely gives and thus encourages idleness. Philanthropy, like everything else, ought to be productive, and I believe that it can be.
In clearing out the need for charity we must keep in mind not only the economic facts of existence, but also that lack of knowledge of these facts encourages fear. Banish fear and we can have self-reliance. Charity is not present where self-reliance dwells. Fear is the offspring of a reliance placed on something outside – on a foreman’s goodwill, perhaps, on a shop’s prosperity, on a market’s steadiness. That is just another way of saying that fear is the portion of the man who acknowledges his career to be in the keeping of earthly circumstances. Fear is the result of the body assuming ascendancy over the soul. The habit of failure is purely mental and is the mother of fear. This habit gets itself fixed on men because they lack vision. They start out to do something that reaches from A to Z. At A they fail, at B they stumble, and at C they meet with what seems to be an insuperable difficulty. They then cry “beaten” and throw the whole task down. They have not even given themselves a chance really to fail; they have not given their vision a chance to be proved or disproved. They have simply let themselves be beaten by the natural difficulties that attend every kind of effort.
There is no security outside of himself. There is no wealth outside of himself. The elimination of fear is the bringing in of security and supply. Let every American become steeled against coddling. Americans ought to resent coddling. It is a drug. Stand up and stand out; let weaklings take charity
On Thomas Edison
No man exceeds Thomas A. Edison in broad vision and understanding. One time I managed to catch him alone for a moment and told him what I was working on. He was immediately interested. He is interested in every search for new knowledge. And then I asked him if he thought that there was a future in the internal combustion engine. He answered something in this fashion: “Yes, there is a big future for any light-weight engine that can develop a high horsepower and be self-contained. No one kind of motive power is ever going to do all the work of the country. We do not know what electricity can do, but I take for granted that it cannot do everything. Keep on with your engine. If you can get what you are after, I can see a great future.” That is characteristic of Edison. He was the central figure in the electrical industry, which was then young and enthusiastic. The rank and file of the electrical men could see nothing ahead but electricity, but their leader could see with crystal clearness that no one power could do all the work of the country. I suppose that is why he was the leader.
Edison believes all things are possible. At the same time he keeps his feet on the ground. He goes forward step by step. He regards “impossible” as a description for that which we have not at the moment the knowledge to achieve. He knows that as we amass knowledge we build the power to overcome the impossible.
Edison is easily the world’s greatest scientist. I am not sure that he is not also the world’s worst business man. He knows almost nothing of business.
On John Burroughs
Poverty springs from a number of sources, the more important of which are controllable. So does special privilege. I think it is entirely feasible to abolish both poverty and special privilege – and there can be no question but that their abolition is desirable. Both are unnatural, but it is work, not law, to which we must look for results.
This was part of John Burroughs’ sanity – he was not afraid to change his views. He was a lover of Nature, not her dupe. In the course of time he came to value and approve modern devices, and though this by itself is an interesting fact, it is not so interesting as the fact that he made this change after he was seventy years old. John Burroughs was never too old to change. He kept growing to the last. The man who is too set to change is already dead. The funeral a mere detail.
If he talked more of one person than another, it was Emerson. Not only did he know Emerson by heart as an author, but he knew him by heart as a spirit. He taught me to know Emerson. He had so saturated himself with Emerson that at one time he thought as he did and even fell into his mode of expression. But afterward he found his own way – which for him was better.
Has moved beyond the ignorance paradox and gained deep fluency but gained mastery once he developed his own style
On Thinking & Education
An able man is a man who can do things, and his ability to do things is dependent on what he has in him. What he has in him depends on what he started with and what he has done to increase and discipline it. An educated man is not one whose memory is trained to carry a few dates in history – he is one who can accomplish things. A man who cannot think is not an educated man, however many college degrees he may have acquired. Thinking is the hardest work any one can do – which is probably the reason why we have so few thinkers. There are two extremes to be avoided: one is the attitude of contempt toward education, the other is the tragic snobbery of assuming that marching through an educational system is a sure cure for ignorance and mediocrity.
The best education can do for a man is to put him in possession of his powers, give him control of the tools with which destiny has endowed him, and teach him how to think. The college renders its best service as an intellectual gymnasium, in which mental muscle is developed and the student strengthened to do what he can. To say, however, that mental gymnastics can be had only in college is not true, as every educator knows. A man’s real education begins after he has left school. True education is gained through the discipline of life
The only reason why every man does not know everything that the human mind has ever learned is that no one has ever yet found it worthwhile to know that much. Men satisfy their minds more by finding out things for themselves than by heaping together the things which somebody else has found out. You can go out and gather knowledge all your life, and with all your gathering you will not catch up even with your own times. You may fill your head with all the “facts” of all the ages, and your head may be just an overloaded fact–box when you get through. The point is this: great piles of knowledge in the head are not the same as mental activity. A man may be very learned and very useless. And then again, a man may be unlearned and very useful
The object of education is not to fill a man’s mind with facts; it is to teach him how to use his mind in thinking. And it often happens that a man can think better if he is not hampered by the knowledge of the past
One good way to hinder progress is to fill a man’s head with all the learning of the past; it makes him feel that because his head is full, there is nothing more to learn Merely gathering knowledge may become the most useless work a man can do. What can you do to help and heal the world? That is the educational test. If a man can hold up his own end, he counts for one. If he can help ten or a hundred or a thousand other men hold up their ends, he counts for more. When a man is master of his own sphere, whatever it may be, he has also won his degree – he has entered the realm of wisdom
What we accumulate by way of useless surplus does us no honor
There are two fools in this world. One is the millionaire who thinks that by hoarding money he can somehow accumulate real power, and the other is the penniless reformer who thinks that if only he can take the money from one class and give it to another, all the world’s ills will be cured. They are both on the wrong track. They might as well try to corner all the checkers or all the dominoes of the world under the delusion that they are thereby cornering great quantities of skill. Some of the most successful money-makers of our times have never added one pennyworth to the wealth of men. Does a card player add to the wealth of the world?
I am not a reformer. I think there is entirely too much attempt at reforming in the world and that we pay too much attention to reformers. We have two kinds of reformers. Both are nuisances. The man who calls himself a reformer wants to smash things. He is the sort of man who would tear up a whole shirt because the collar button did not fit the buttonhole. It would never occur to him to enlarge the buttonhole. This sort of reformer never under any circumstances knows what he is doing. Experience and reform do not go together. A reformer cannot keep his zeal at white heat in the presence of fact. He must discard all facts.
Our only advantage was lack of precedent
We are often too wrapped up in the things we are doing – we are not enough concerned with the reasons why we do them. Our whole competitive system, our whole creative expression all the play of our faculties seem to be centered around material production and its by–products of success and wealth
It is not true that opportunity has been lost in organization. If the young man will liberate himself from these ideas and regard the system as it is, he will find that what he thought was a barrier is really an aid
Our help does not come from Washington but from ourselves
Business and government are necessary as servants, like water and grain; as masters they overturn the natural order
There can be no greater absurdity and no greater disservice to humanity in general than to insist all men are equal. Most certainly all men are not equal and any democratic conception which strives to make men equal is only an effort to block progress. Men cannot be of equal service. The men of larger ability are less numerous than men of smaller ability; it is possible for a mass of the smaller men to pull the larger ones down – but in so doing they pull themselves down. It is the larger men who give the leadership to the community and enable the smaller men to live with less effort.
Lack of knowledge is what is going on and lack of knowledge of what the job really is and the best way of doing it are the reasons why farming is thought not to pay. Nothing could pay the way farming is conducted. The farmer follows luck and his forefathers. He does not know how economically to produce, and he does not know how to market. A manufacturer who knew how neither to produce nor to market would not long stay in business. That the farmer can stay on shows how wonderfully profitable farming can be. The way to attain low priced and high volume production means plenty for everyone – is quite simple. The trouble is that the general tendency is to complicate very simple affairs. Take for instance, an “improvement.” When we talk about improvements we have in mind some change in a product. An “improved” product is one that has been changed. That is. It my idea. I do not believe in starting to make until I have discovered the best possible thing. This, of course, does not mean that a product should never be changed, but I think that it will be found more economical in the end not even to try to produce an article until you have fully satisfied yourself that utility, design, and material are the best. If your researches do not give you that confidence, then keep right on searching until you find confidence. The place to start manufacturing is with the article. The factory, the organization, the selling and the financial plans will shape themselves to the article. You will have a cutting edge on your business chisel and in the end you will save time. Rushing into manufacturing without being certain of the product is the unrecognized cause of many business failures. People seem to think that the big thing is the factory or the store or the financial backing or the management. The big thing is the product, and any hurry in getting into fabrication before designs are completed is just so much wasted time. I spent twelve years before I had a Model T – which is what is known today as the Ford car – that suited me. We did not attempt to go into real production until we had a real product. That product has not been essentially changed. We are constantly experimenting with new ideas. If you travel the roads in the neighborhood of Dearborn you can find all sorts of models of Ford cars. They are experimental cars – they are not new models. I do not believe in letting any good idea get by me, but I will not quickly decide whether an idea is good or bad. If an idea seems good or seems even to have possibilities, I believe in doing whatever is necessary to test out the idea from every angle. But testing out the idea is something very different from making a change in the car. Where most manufacturers find themselves quicker to make a change in the product than in the method of manufacturing – we follow exactly the opposite course. Our big changes have been in methods of manufacturing. They never stand still. I believe there is hardly a single operation in the making of our car that is the same as when we made our first car of the present model. That is why we make them so cheaply. The few changes that have been made in the car have been in the direction of convenience in use or where we found that a change in design might give added strength. The materials in the car change as we learn more and more about materials. Also we do not want to be held up in production or have the expense of production increased by any possible shortage in a particular material, so we have for most parts worked out substitute materials. Vanadium steel, for instance, is our principal steel. With it we can get the greatest strength with the least weight, but it would not be good business to let our whole future depend upon being able to get vanadium steel. We have worked out a substitute. All our steels are special, but for every one of them we have at least one, and sometimes several, fully proved and tested substitutes. And so on through all of our materials and likewise with our parts. In the beginning we made very few of our parts and none of our motors. Now we make all our motors and most of our parts because we find it cheaper to do so. But also we aim to make some of every part so that we cannot be caught in any market emergency or be crippled by some outside manufacturer being unable to fill his orders.
It could almost be written down as a formula that when a man begins to think that he has at last found his method he had better begin a most searching examination of himself to see whether some part of his brain has not gone to sleep. There is a subtle danger in a man thinking that he is “fixed” for life. It indicates that the next jolt of the wheel of progress is going to fling him off. There is also the great fear of being thought a fool. So many men are afraid of being considered fools. I grant that public opinion is a powerful police influence for those who need it. Perhaps it is true that the majority of men need the restraint of public opinion. Public opinion may keep a man better than he would otherwise be – if not better morally, at least better as far as his social desirability is concerned. But it is not a bad thing to be a fool for righteousness’ sake. The best of it is that such fools usually live long enough to prove that they were not fools – or the work they have begun lives long enough to prove they were not foolish.
The temptation to stop and hang on to what one has is quite natural. I can entirely sympathize with the desire to quite a life of activity and retire to a life of ease. I have never felt the urge myself but I can comprehend what it is – although I think that a man who retires ought entirely to get out of business. There is a disposition to retire and retain control. It was, however, no part of my plan to do anything of that sort. I regarded our progress merely as an invitation to do more – as an indication that we had reached a place where we might begin to perform a real service. I had been planning every day through these years toward a universal car. The public had given its reactions to the various models. The cars in service, the racing, and the road tests gave excellent guides as to the changes that ought to be made, and even by 1905 I lacked the material to give strength without weight. I came across that material almost by accident
Nothing is more foolish than for any class to assume that progress is an attack upon it. Progress is only a call made upon it to lend its experience for the general advancement. It is only those who are unwise who will attempt to obstruct progress and thereby become its victims. All of us are here together, all of us must go forward together; it is perfectly sill for any man or class to take umbrage at the stirring of progress. If financiers feel that progress is only the restlessness of the weak–minded persons, if they regard all suggestions of betterment as a personal slap, then they are taking the part which proves more than anything else could their unfitness to continue in their leadership
I have no quarrel with the general attitude of scoffing at new ideas. It is better to be skeptical of all new ideas and to insist upon being shown rather than to rush around in a continuous brainstorm after every new idea. Skepticism, if by that we mean cautiousness, is the balance wheel of civilization. Most of the present acute troubles of the world arise out of taking on new ideas without first carefully investigating to discover if they are good ideas. An idea is not necessarily good because it is old, or necessarily bad because it is new, but if an old idea works, then the weight of the evidence is all in its favor. Ideas are of themselves extraordinarily valuable, but an idea is just an idea. Almost anyone can think up an idea. The thing that counts is developing it into a practical product.
“Out of very hundred new ideas ninety-nine or more will probably be inferior to the traditional responses which they propose to replace. So the conservative who resists change is as valuable as the radical who proposes it—perhaps as much more valuable as roots are more vital than grafts. It is good that new ideas be heard, but it is also good that new ideas be compelled to go through the mill of objection, opposition, and contumely; this is the trial heat which innovations must survive before being allowed to enter the human race. Out of this tension comes a creative tensile strength, a stimulated development, a secret and basic unity and movement of the whole.’’ – Will Durant
Freedom is the right to work a decent length of time and to get a decent living for doing so; to be able to arrange the little personal details of one’s own life. It is the aggregate of these and many other items of freedom which makes up the great idealistic Freedom. The minor forms of Freedom lubricate the everyday life of all of us.
The very young critic is much imbalanced
Nature has vetoed the whole Soviet Republic for it sought to deny nature. It denied above all else the right to fruits of labor.
Our help does not come from others but from ourselves
No two things in nature are exactly alike
Law of diminishing returns begins to operate at the point where strength becomes weight. Weight may be desirable in a steam roller but nowhere else. Strength has nothing to do with weight. The mentality of the man who does things in the world is agile, light, and strong. The most beautiful things in the world are those from which all excess weight has been eliminated. Strength is never just weight – either in men or in things. Whenever anyone suggests to me that I might increase weight or add a part, I took into decreasing weight and eliminating a part! The car that I have designed was lighter than any car that had yet been made. It would have been lighter if I had known how to make it so – later I got the materials to make the lighter car.
I only want to know whether the greatest good is rendered to the greatest number
Any successful system must check human nature; not depend on it
What is desirable and right is never impossible
You can never develop Mexico until you develop the Mexican
A country becomes great when, by the wise development of its resources and the skill of its people, property is widely and fairly distributed
It is the right act sincerely done that counts
Those who shout loudest about democracy I think, as a rule, want it least
What I got out of it
One of my favorite biographies and business books of all time. Extremely clear thinker, does what works rather than what others think is right, never accepted anything as true and questioned everything, sought simplicity in all that he did, was never “done”. He of course had some great flaws such which we should be weary of but we can absorb and incorporate his teachings while recognizing his faults.
The life and accomplishments of Darwin through his own eyes
I have attempted to write the following account of myself, as if I were a dead man in another world looking back at my own life. Nor have I found this difficult, for life is nearly over with me. I have taken no pains about my style of writing.
The passion for collecting which leads a man to be a systematic naturalist, a virtuoso, or a miser, was very strong in me, and was clearly innate, as none of my sisters or brother ever had this taste.
I have heard my father and elder sister say that I had, as a very young boy, a strong taste for long solitary walks; but what I thought about I know not. I often became quite absorbed, and once, whilst returning to school on the summit of the old fortifications round Shrewsbury, which had been converted into a public foot-path with no parapet on one side, I walked off and fell to the ground, but the height was only seven or eight feet. Nevertheless the number of thoughts which passed through my mind during this very short, but sudden and wholly unexpected fall, was astonishing, and seem hardly compatible with what physiologists have, I believe, proved about each thought requiring quite an appreciable amount of time.
The school as a means of education to me was simply a blank. During my whole life I have been singularly incapable of mastering any language. Much attention was paid to learning by heart the lessons of the previous day; this I could effect with great facility, learning forty or fifty lines of Virgil or Homer, whilst I was in morning chapel; but this exercise was utterly useless, for every verse was forgotten in forty-eight hours.
I believe that I was considered by all my masters and by my father as a very ordinary boy, rather below the common standard in intellect. To my deep mortification my father once said to me, “You care for nothing but shooting, dogs, and rat-catching, and you will be a disgrace to yourself and all your family.” But my father, who was the kindest man I ever knew and whose memory I love with all my heart, must have been angry and somewhat unjust when he used such words.
Looking back as well as I can at my character during my school life, the only qualities which at this period promised well for the future, were, that I had strong and diversified tastes, much zeal for whatever interested me, and a keen pleasure in understanding any complex subject or thing. I was taught Euclid by a private tutor, and I distinctly remember the intense satisfaction which the clear geometrical proofs gave me.
NOTE: recipe for learning
I had many friends amongst the schoolboys, whom I loved dearly, and I think that my disposition was then very affectionate.
With respect to science, I continued collecting minerals with much zeal, but quite unscientifically—all that I cared about was a new-named mineral, and I hardly attempted to classify them.
This was the best part of my education at school, for it showed me practically the meaning of experimental science.
I was sent there to commence them. But soon after this period I became convinced from various small circumstances that my father would leave me property enough to subsist on with some comfort, though I never imagined that I should be so rich a man as I am; but my belief was sufficient to check any strenuous efforts to learn medicine.
I also attended on two occasions the operating theatre in the hospital at Edinburgh, and saw two very bad operations, one on a child, but I rushed away before they were completed. Nor did I ever attend again, for hardly any inducement would have been strong enough to make me do so; this being long before the blessed days of chloroform. The two cases fairly haunted me for many a long year.
My zeal was so great that I used to place my shooting-boots open by my bed-side when I went to bed, so as not to lose half a minute in putting them on in the morning; and on one occasion I reached a distant part of the Maer estate, on the 20th of August for black-game shooting, before I could see: I then toiled on with the game-keeper the whole day through thick heath and young Scotch firs.
After having spent two sessions in Edinburgh, my father perceived, or he heard from my sisters, that I did not like the thought of being a physician, so he proposed that I should become a clergyman.
Considering how fiercely I have been attacked by the orthodox, it seems ludicrous that I once intended to be a clergyman.
But I am glad to think that I had many other friends of a widely different nature.
But no pursuit at Cambridge was followed with nearly so much eagerness or gave me so much pleasure as collecting beetles. It was the mere passion for collecting, for I did not dissect them, and rarely compared their external characters with published descriptions, but got them named anyhow. I will give a proof of my zeal: one day, on tearing off some old bark, I saw two rare beetles, and seized one in each hand; then I saw a third and new kind, which I could not bear to lose, so that I popped the one which I held in my right hand into my mouth. Alas! it ejected some intensely acrid fluid, which burnt my tongue so that I was forced to spit the beetle out, which was lost, as was the third one.
I have not as yet mentioned a circumstance which influenced my whole career more than any other. This was my friendship with Professor Henslow. Before coming up to Cambridge, I had heard of him from my brother as a man who knew every branch of science, and I was accordingly prepared to reverence him. He kept open house once every week when all undergraduates, and some older members of the University, who were attached to science, used to meet in the evening. I soon got, through Fox, an invitation, and went there regularly. Before long I became well acquainted with Henslow, and during the latter half of my time at Cambridge took long walks with him on most days; so that I was called by some of the dons “the man who walks with Henslow;” and in the evening I was very often asked to join his family dinner. His knowledge was great in botany, entomology, chemistry, mineralogy, and geology. His strongest taste was to draw conclusions from long-continued minute observations. His judgment was excellent, and his whole mind well balanced; but I do not suppose that any one would say that he possessed much original genius. He was deeply religious, and so orthodox that he told me one day he should be grieved if a single word of the Thirty-nine Articles were altered. His moral qualities were in every way admirable. He was free from every tinge of vanity or other petty feeling; and I never saw a man who thought so little about himself or his own concerns. His temper was imperturbably good, with the most winning and courteous manners; yet, as I have seen, he could be roused by any bad action to the warmest indignation and prompt action.
Looking back, I infer that there must have been something in me a little superior to the common run of youths, otherwise the above-mentioned men, so much older than me and higher in academical position, would never have allowed me to associate with them. Certainly I was not aware of any such superiority, and I remember one of my sporting friends, Turner, who saw me at work with my beetles, saying that I should some day be a Fellow of the Royal Society, and the notion seemed to me preposterous.
During my last year at Cambridge, I read with care and profound interest Humboldt’s ‘Personal Narrative.’ This work, and Sir J. Herschel’s ‘Introduction to the Study of Natural Philosophy,’ stirred up in me a burning zeal to add even the most humble contribution to the noble structure of Natural Science. No one or a dozen other books influenced me nearly so much as these two.
These gravel-beds belong in fact to the glacial period, and in after years I found in them broken arctic shells. But I was then utterly astonished at Sedgwick not being delighted at so wonderful a fact as a tropical shell being found near the surface in the middle of England. Nothing before had ever made me thoroughly realise, though I had read various scientific books, that science consists in grouping facts so that general laws or conclusions may be drawn from them.
We had several quarrels; for instance, early in the voyage at Bahia, in Brazil, he defended and praised slavery, which I abominated
The voyage of the “Beagle” has been by far the most important event in my life, and has determined my whole career; yet it depended on so small a circumstance as my uncle offering to drive me thirty miles to Shrewsbury, which few uncles would have done, and on such a trifle as the shape of my nose. I have always felt that I owe to the voyage the first real training or education of my mind; I was led to attend closely to several branches of natural history, and thus my powers of observation were improved, though they were always fairly developed.
During some part of the day I wrote my Journal, and took much pains in describing carefully and vividly all that I had seen; and this was good practice.
The above various special studies were, however, of no importance compared with the habit of energetic industry and of concentrated attention to whatever I was engaged in, which I then acquired. Everything about which I thought or read was made to bear directly on what I had seen or was likely to see; and this habit of mind was continued during the five years of the voyage. I feel sure that it was this training which has enabled me to do whatever I have done in science.
Looking backwards, I can now perceive how my love for science gradually preponderated over every other taste. During the first two years my old passion for shooting survived in nearly full force, and I shot myself all the birds and animals for my collection; but gradually I gave up my gun more and more, and finally altogether, to my servant, as shooting interfered with my work, more especially with making out the geological structure of a country. I discovered, though unconsciously and insensibly, that the pleasure of observing and reasoning was a much higher one than that of skill and sport.
As far as I can judge of myself, I worked to the utmost during the voyage from the mere pleasure of investigation, and from my strong desire to add a few facts to the great mass of facts in Natural Science.
I think that I can say with truth that in after years, though I cared in the highest degree for the approbation of such men as Lyell and Hooker, who were my friends, I did not care much about the general public. I do not mean to say that a favourable review or a large sale of my books did not please me greatly, but the pleasure was a fleeting one, and I am sure that I have never turned one inch out of my course to gain fame.
In July I opened my first note-book for facts in relation to the Origin of Species, about which I had long reflected, and never ceased working for the next twenty years.
Because no other explanation was possible under our then state of knowledge, I argued in favour of sea-action; and my error has been a good lesson to me never to trust in science to the principle of exclusion.
No other work of mine was begun in so deductive a spirit as this, for the whole theory was thought out on the west coast of South America, before I had seen a true coral reef. I had therefore only to verify and extend my views by a careful examination of living reefs.
This excursion interested me greatly, and it was the last time I was ever strong enough to climb mountains or to take long walks such as are necessary for geological work.
I saw more of Lyell than of any other man, both before and after my marriage. His mind was characterised, as it appeared to me, by clearness, caution, sound judgment, and a good deal of originality. When I made any remark to him on Geology, he never rested until he saw the whole case clearly, and often made me see it more clearly than I had done before. He would advance all possible objections to my suggestion, and even after these were exhausted would long remain dubious. A second characteristic was his hearty sympathy with the work of other scientific men.
“What a good thing it would be if every scientific man was to die when sixty years old, as afterwards he would be sure to oppose all new doctrines.”
His knowledge was extraordinarily great, and much died with him, owing to his excessive fear of ever making a mistake.
—reminds me of Buckle whom I once met at Hensleigh Wedgwood’s. I was very glad to learn from him his system of collecting facts. He told me that he bought all the books which he read, and made a full index, to each, of the facts which he thought might prove serviceable to him, and that he could always remember in what book he had read anything, for his memory was wonderful. I asked him how at first he could judge what facts would be serviceable, and he answered that he did not know, but that a sort of instinct guided him. From this habit of making indices, he was enabled to give the astonishing number of references on all sorts of subjects, which may be found in his ‘History of Civilisation.’
During the first part of our residence we went a little into society, and received a few friends here; but my health almost always suffered from the excitement, violent shivering and vomiting attacks being thus brought on. I have therefore been compelled for many years to give up all dinner-parties; and this has been somewhat of a deprivation to me, as such parties always put me into high spirits. From the same cause I have been able to invite here very few scientific acquaintances.
My chief enjoyment and sole employment throughout life has been scientific work; and the excitement from such work makes me for the time forget, or drives quite away, my daily discomfort.
I record in a little diary, which I have always kept, that my three geological books (‘Coral Reefs’ included) consumed four and a half years’ steady work;
To understand the structure of my new Cirripede I had to examine and dissect many of the common forms; and this gradually led me on to take up the whole group. I worked steadily on this subject for the next eight years, and ultimately published two thick volumes
From September 1854 I devoted my whole time to arranging my huge pile of notes, to observing, and to experimenting in relation to the transmutation of species. During the voyage of the “Beagle” I had been deeply impressed by discovering in the Pampean formation great fossil animals covered with armour like that on the existing armadillos; secondly, by the manner in which closely allied animals replace one another in proceeding southwards over the Continent; and thirdly, by the South American character of most of the productions of the Galapagos archipelago, and more especially by the manner in which they differ slightly on each island of the group; none of the islands appearing to be very ancient in a geological sense. It was evident that such facts as these, as well as many others, could only be explained on the supposition that species gradually become modified; and the subject haunted me. But it was equally evident that neither the action of the surrounding conditions, nor the will of the organisms (especially in the case of plants) could account for the innumerable cases in which organisms of every kind are beautifully adapted to their habits of life—for instance, a woodpecker or a tree-frog to climb trees, or a seed for dispersal by hooks or plumes.
soon perceived that selection was the keystone of man’s success in making useful races of animals and plants. But how selection could be applied to organisms living in a state of nature remained for some time a mystery to me. In October 1838, that is, fifteen months after I had begun my systematic enquiry, I happened to read for amusement ‘Malthus on Population,’ and being well prepared to appreciate the struggle for existence which everywhere goes on from long-continued observation of the habits of animals and plants, it at once struck me that under these circumstances favourable variations would tend to be preserved, and unfavourable ones to be destroyed. The result of this would be the formation of new species. Here then I had at last got a theory by which to work; but I was so anxious to avoid prejudice, that I determined not for some time to write even the briefest sketch of it. In June 1842 I first allowed myself the satisfaction of writing a very brief abstract of my theory in pencil in 35 pages; and this was enlarged during the summer of 1844 into one of 230 pages, which I had fairly copied out and still possess.
But at that time I overlooked one problem of great importance; and it is astonishing to me, except on the principle of Columbus and his egg, how I could have overlooked it and its solution. This problem is the tendency in organic beings descended from the same stock to diverge in character as they become modified. That they have diverged greatly is obvious from the manner in which species of all kinds can be classed under genera, genera under families, families under sub-orders and so forth; and I can remember the very spot in the road, whilst in my carriage, when to my joy the solution occurred to me; and this was long after I had come to Down. The solution, as I believe, is that the modified offspring of all dominant and increasing forms tend to become adapted to many and highly diversified places in the economy of nature.
The success of the ‘Origin’ may, I think, be attributed in large part to my having long before written two condensed sketches, and to my having finally abstracted a much larger manuscript, which was itself an abstract. By this means I was enabled to select the more striking facts and conclusions. I had, also, during many years followed a golden rule, namely, that whenever a published fact, a new observation or thought came across me, which was opposed to my general results, to make a memorandum of it without fail and at once; for I had found by experience that such facts and thoughts were far more apt to escape from the memory than favourable ones. Owing to this habit, very few objections were raised against my views which I had not at least noticed and attempted to answer.
I gained much by my delay in publishing from about 1839, when the theory was clearly conceived, to 1859; and I lost nothing by it, for I cared very little whether men attributed most originality to me or Wallace; and his essay no doubt aided in the reception of the theory.
Whenever I have found out that I have blundered, or that my work has been imperfect, and when I have been contemptuously criticised, and even when I have been overpraised, so that I have felt mortified, it has been my greatest comfort to say hundreds of times to myself that “I have worked as hard and as well as I could, and no man can do more than this.”
An unverified hypothesis is of little or no value; but if anyone should hereafter be led to make observations by which some such hypothesis could be established, I shall have done good service, as an astonishing number of isolated facts can be thus connected together and rendered intelligible.
My ‘Descent of Man’ was published in February, 1871. As soon as I had become, in the year 1837 or 1838, convinced that species were mutable productions, I could not avoid the belief that man must come under the same law. Accordingly I collected notes on the subject for my own satisfaction, and not for a long time with any intention of publishing. Although in the ‘Origin of Species’ the derivation of any particular species is never discussed, yet I thought it best, in order that no honourable man should accuse me of concealing my views, to add that by the work “light would be thrown on the origin of man and his history.” It would have been useless and injurious to the success of the book to have paraded, without giving any evidence, my conviction with respect to his origin.
During subsequent years, whenever I had leisure, I pursued my experiments, and my book on ‘Insectivorous Plants’ was published in July 1875—that is, sixteen years after my first observations. The delay in this case, as with all my other books, has been a great advantage to me; for a man after a long interval can criticise his own work, almost as well as if it were that of another person.
What I got out of it
So many nuggets but Darwin’s recipe for learning is gold: concentrated self-study, keeping of a diary/journal, keeping indexed notes of relevant material, seeking to test and destroy beloved concepts by immediately scribbling down ‘unfavorable’ evidence/results and thinking through why this may be right, and learning lessons by heart
A fun and honest recounting of the highs and lows of Steve Martin’s early life and comedic career
Spent 18 years in stand up comedy – 10 years learning, 4 years refining and 4 in wild success
Gained the ability to have his mouth in the present and his mind on the future, observing the audience and the past and understanding where to go and when. Enjoyment during performing was rare but after the show had long hours of elation or misery
Was seeking comic originality and fame came as a byproduct
Feels like this is more like a biography than an autobiography as often it feels like these events happened to someone else or that I was in a dream
Jokes are always funniest when played on oneself
His father was physically abusive to Steve and verbally to the rest of the family. His father was tougher on anybody else because he was jealous of Steve as Steve was doing what he had always wanted to do
Steve’s first job was selling guides at Disneyland and this gave him a tremendous sense of independence and confidence. He later became a rope trick performer by studying every nuance of the current main act and mouthing along the lines and imagining that the audience’s laughter was really for him
Realizing that suffering will happen a lot and that it is part of life seems to make it more bearable
Dariel Fitzkee’s Showmanship for Magicians had a tremendous impact on Steve Martin and how he thought about comedy and showmanship
Would record the crowd’s reaction to all his gags and then write down ideas for how to improve every one of them
Credits his naiveté when young to even consider going into comedy without what he says are any talents whatsoever
Early on, at The Birdcage, Steve was able to practice 4-5x per day 6 days per week. He learned timing, poise and how to deal with failure
Over the years, I have learned that there is no harm in charging oneself up with delusions in between periods of valid inspiration
Every new philosophy is good for creativity
Comedy is a distortion of what is happening
Had panic attacks over a 20 year span
Began the phrase “well, excuse me”
The more physically uncomfortable the audience, the bigger the laughs
A valuable tip he got from a great showman was “always look better than the crowd does”
It is possible to will confidence
Steve was a bit of an eccentric, rambler, out-there type comedian who won people over by being different, true and having a unique point of view on things
Much of Steve’s success was due to hard work but luck also played a large role – what he wore, his timing, the environment around him, the culture, his use of visuals, how he sold his albums, etc. weren’t totally thought through all the time but made people curious and pulled them to his shows
He learned never to alienate the audience
Was shocked and elated that he had become the cultural focus. He had come from nothing, from a simple magic act into the country’s most popular comedian. His joy of performing diminished though as it turned from experimentation to a feeling of responsibility to entertain people. Stress and bad reviews got to him and he realized how ephemeral comedy was. Normal conversations were impossible and social rules did not apply to celebrities like him, his privacy was no more
Moved to starring in movies as comedy was really ephemeral and the travel was killing him
His father was never impressed with his accomplishments or success and his mother was mostly concerned about fame, fortune and luxury
Steve noticed in the early 1980s that he wasn’t selling out shows anymore, he had lost touch with why he got into show business in the first place and that night was his last night of stand up
He was able to reconcile the relationship with his parents and his father became less judgmental and more positive on Steve and his career. His father said he was sorry and jealous because Steve did everything he had wanted to do. He was sorry for receiving all the love he had and not being able to return it. Steve responded by saying “I did it for you” rather than the more complicated “I did it because of you”
Moving on and not looking back at all on his stand up career until writing this book was his way of tricking himself that he hadn’t achieved anything and spurred his creativity
What I got out of it
It took Steve Martin a decade or more of pain and struggle he Steve gained confidence and comedic acclaim. He was willing to put himself out there night after and slowly but surely learned how to become a great showman and what kind of comedian he wanted to become
Frederick Taylor Gates, the senior business and philanthropic advisor to John D. Rockefeller, recounts his life story and interaction with JDR
Gates grew up in a relatively poor household but his parents were hard working and were never for want. Gates became a Baptist minister after graduating from Rochester and practiced for about a decade. He came into contact with JDR during his fundraising process for a Baptist university in Chicago. JDR was impressed enough with his acumen and common sense that he brought him on board, eventually to become senior business advisor for JDR’s business and philanthropic decisions
While preaching in Minnesota, Mr. Pillsbury approached Gates on how to handle his will and was taken in by the suggestion that he required Gates to take a year off from being a pastor to spread the message of the importance of Baptist advancement in the state
Joined the Executive Board of the American Baptist Education Society and was central in communicating with Rockefeller on the importance of establishing a great Baptist university in central Chicago, what would later become the University of Chicago. Gates was named by Rockefeller to be one of the Trustees for the University of Chicago which he helped fund-raise for and then help lead.
Dr. Harper was the University of Chicago’s first president and had ambitious plans for the University. His expansion and spending put him at odds occasionally with Mr. Rockefeller but his vision helped make UChicago the incredible institution it is today
Gates soon after moved to New York to help with Rockefeller’s other benevolences and it was at this point that he turned away from the ministry. Gates helped to direct Rockefeller’s fund and then lead and manage these companies, trusts or philanthropic organizations. Gates steered Rockefeller’s donations towards the principles of scientific giving and eventually laying aside retail giving to individuals and local charities and fully entering wholesale philanthropy to approved public agencies. Gates had little business experience but Rockefeller trusted that he would learn and put him in that position because Gates had a “great store of common sense.” Gates responds by saying that, “his excuse is valid in its implication that common sense diligently applied is usually the best possible solvent of difficult business problems. Gates helped Rockefeller sell out of many poor investments which a “syndicate” of old friends and acquaintances had looped Rockefeller into but ended up being reckless
In his study of one of Rockefeller’s mining investments in Colorado – “My self-distrust proved my salvation. I would not rely at all on any examination of mine. If these consolidated gold properties were what they were represented to be, they would be well known. They ought to be well known throughout Colorado. There must be men in Denver itself who knew of them. I could and would find out what experienced and reliable men in Colorado knew of these mines.” He would come to find that Rockefeller’s investment was in a complete fraud with no gold by conversing with these fluent miners and engineers
This was too much for Rockefeller and it was then JDR invited Gates to be the independent agent in charge of both his philanthropic and personal investing decisions
On Children & Parenting
Never underestimate the impression something can have on a young child – the years of early childhood usually fix the character and destiny of the man
It is a mistake to think children need to be harshly rebuked. To raise gentlemen and women, one must treat them in childhood with courtesy
The parent can force an apparent but wholly deceptive victory by fear, for no victory is complete that does not carry the child’s reason, and conscience, the victory of intelligent voluntary repentance
Children should be taught to pray for what they crave and always in their own words or else the prayer rings hollow. Spent his entire adult life trying to erase his early religious training as he found it painful and stamped out his natural desire to do good. It is ideals lovingly cherished, not terrors, that educate the conscience and create character
My parents talked over all their troubles with entire freedom in the presence of their children. I know no better way than free discussion in the presence of the children of the daily problems of the family, including its relations with others, if children are to be trained in such worldly wisdom as their parents have, and in the practical conduct of life
I find that praise and encouragement work wonders and it gets students much more interested and self motivated
My mother told me to do everything I was told to do, be it high or low; shrink from no duty however difficult or distasteful, and do it, said she, just as well as you can. Do it better than others. Though you may not have as much talent as some, your labor in this way will always be in demand
Beyond mere physical protection of the very little children, we sought to train our children to govern themselves. We tried to make love only the atmosphere of our home. in this spirit it was not necessary to treat them as underlings , but as friends. We advised, persuaded, encouraged, commended, rewarded them, but we sought never to command or forbid. The last word of all counsel was: such is our advice and our wish, but make your own decision; do as you think best. More often than not they begged us to make the decision for them, for they found it easier to be governed than to govern themselves. But self-control can be attained only by the habitual practice of it
We did not spare expense at any point, because we thought that the taste for good music would be worth more – far more – to our children in later life than the inheritance of the money it cost
The mind of the child grows not by absorbing the contents of books, but by intense, spontaneous, self-directed, mental action, just as the body of the child grows by intense, spontaneous, self-directed physical action in his plays. The mind and body are inseparable. They share a common life. We supplemented the schools with twice as much self-directed work and play outside the school hours. We made it a rule to provide at home all the tools, and all the chemical, physical and electrical equipment, apparatus, and material that our children wanted…We had given a minor place only to the study of books but had kept our children busy sixteen hours per day in self-chosen, spontaneous activity, as intense as possible and furnished with all needed facilities and tools
On Business & Philanthropy
Every step a man takes in capacity to work, and to do better work will bring him into a higher plane – a plane in which there will be fewer competitors, greater demand and higher rewards
I knew of course that no man becomes fitted for a new position of importance and responsibility, except by months or years. Of experience in the position itself and that in the process of becoming fitted there must be errors, embarrassments and chagrins
Worked for a Mr. Smith who was Scrooge-like but Gates stood up for what he believed was right and earned this man’s trust. He learned the basics of banking and bookkeeping which would serve him well later in life
You need to be educated enough so that you can bring your ideas down to the point that common people can understand them
No man ever made such advancement in culture who did not early in life learn to save the minutes. Benjamin Franklin said “Time is Money.” To you time is more than money. It is mental culture; it is reputation. It is power over men; it is success.
Doing much in a little time, the impression is apt to wear away. Don’t hurry, take time
On fund raising – never tried to increase the subscription or even to get the last cent possible. We aimed to leave friends behind us, not enemies. It was up to them how much to donate and our job was to be grateful whether the donation was large or small
Medicine had become full of charlatans and had fallen behind many other sciences because it was not endowed at colleges and universities and the research had been left to itself and dependent on individual innovation. It became clear to Gates that medicine could not become a true science until medicine was endowed and qualified men were able to give themselves uninterrupted to the study and investigation of medical research. This was where Gates had an immense influence on Rockefeller. “This idea took possession of me. The more I thought of it, the more interested I became. I knew nothing of the cost of research; I did not realize its enormous difficulty; the only thing I saw was the overwhelming need and infinite promise, world-wide, universal, eternal.
On the Rockefeller Institute – The work of the Institute is as universal in its scope as the love of God. Other philanthropies are limited in their scope to individuals, to communities, to classes, to religions, to states, to countries, to nations. This philanthropy alone is as wide as the race. It knows no boundaries at all. Disease is universal and this is a healing ministration, to prevent or destroy disease…It goes to the fountains of life itself. It deals with what is innermost in every man. For what is health? Health is happiness; mere health itself is happiness…And while we think of the universality of its scope and its elemental character, let us remember its permanency. The work is not for today alone, but forever; not for this generation, but for every generation of humanity that shall come after us. Thus every success is multiplied by infinity
The Institute soon became a “benevolent black hole” for world philanthropies and received appeals daily from every sort of agency of human progress and well-being the world over
Gates was also responsible for pushing Rockefeller to give outside his Baptist denomination and outside his own country, to all worth religions and humanitarian agencies everywhere
Gates became worried about the ever increasing fortune of the Rockefeller’s and the potential social demoralization it could bring to descendants. So, he spoke to JDR and JDR Jr. about setting up great corporate philanthropies for forwarding civilization in all its elements in this land and all lands, limitless in time and amount, broad in scope and self-perpetuating. “I knew very well that Mr. Rockefeller’s mind would not work on mere abstract theories. He required concrete practical suggestions, and I set about framing them.” Suggested endowments to focus on higher education, medical research, fine arts, scientific agriculture, promotion of Christian ethics, promotion of intelligent citizenship and civic virtue and more
Rockefeller divorced himself from the philanthropic decisions in order to eliminate his biases and hopefully put the money to the best uses possible. “His satisfaction springs from deeper and more durable sources than human gratitude…His joy is the joy of achievement. He is after the end. He cannot sacrifice the end to the instrument, even when the instrument is himself.”
Gates thought that some of the best and most important work of the whole foundation was through the Sanitary Commission which initially was set up to help eradicate hookworms from the South and eventually the rest of the temperate regions of the world
It was not Mr. Rockefeller’s way to give words of praise to any of his subordinates. To others he sometimes spoke approvingly of me and of my work, and his words would reach me by round about channels. But to my face he never commended me…But just as I never consciously worked for salary, wealth, or position, so I worked not to secure but to deserve Mr. Rockefeller’s approval.
JDR was never a “bull” or a “bear.” He always followed the market, and never directed it. In every one of our great panics he did everything possible to sustain prices and was always a heavy loser in them. His optimism was incurable, and when panics were on and the credit of banks and individuals exhausted, he unlocked his vaults and loaned his securities without limit to banks and stressed debtors
Gates “combines business skill and philanthropic aptitude to a higher degree than any other man I have ever known.”
Gates was the right man for the job because he believed deeply and irrevocably in the perfectibility of man and especially in the advancement of knowledge as the best means for reaching perfection
Both Rockefeller and Gates agreed on the importance of finding the best men available and leaving them free to do the job in their own way
As stated become more and more preoccupied with equality and uniformity, pluralism and excellence may increasingly become the responsibility of the private sector
Never enjoyed or profited from school but he did come to find his love for natural wood and music in school. The art of teaching consists in following nature’s ways by study of the child
One cannot afford to read a book that is not with buying. Read with pen or pencil in hand and read only useful books
A man’s temptations lie mainly in the realm of his powers
Genius is tempted to be original at the expense of truth
Avoid friction. There is such a thing as moral and intellectual friction. Fretting, worry, envy, jealousy, disputes, quarrels – these are all in the nature of friction. Avoid them as so much waste. Make all your power tell, and waste as little as possible
Avoid the habit of omniscience. Take suggestions. Take criticism. The man who is always right is either omniscient or a fool.
The fact is I know less about the Bible today than I did 30 years ago. I thought I knew something about it then but I have learned that I knew very little about it
The idolatry of general concepts – people bow down and worship general concepts such as church, nation, state, democracy. Pick these words apart, gentlemen, and find out what is in them
I believe that the love and good-will exemplified in the Spirit of Jesus are the secret of human well-being and that in this Spirit lies the hope of the race
None of the precious things in life can be bought with money and money, past a certain point, was more a burden than a gain
Mr. Rockefeller’s habitual policy had been total silence under accusation
Humanity, as I said, must always live with Nature, with her forces and their reactions on mankind. For what is human progress? Ultimately it is this, just this, and nothing else – an ever closer approach to the facts, the laws, the forces of Nature, considered of course in its largest meaning. Nothing else is progress and nothing else will prove to be permanent among men
What I got out of it
Amazing wisdom – not only about business and philanthropic savvy, but on how to raise children, deal with people and lead a happy, fulfilling and successful life
Phil Knight recounts the formation, history, culture and vision of one of the most widely recognized brands in the world
Knight ran track at Oregon and says that runners truly run because what happens when they stop scares them. Knight decided early on that he would never stop, no matter what
Nike started off with running shoes and the thesis originally came to Knight while he was st Stanford business school. Japanese cameras had undercut German ones and he argued that the same may happen with American running shoes. Wanted to travel the world before chasing this business dream and had to convince his dad. His father valued being respected more than anything and thought this was the case because of his inner chaos, which came through via alcohol. Phil hated to sell and was worried about trying to convince his dad but eventually he succeeded. Knight spent months planning his world travels and invited his best friend, Carter. The plan went off the rails quickly as they decided to stay in Hawaii for several months. Carter found a girlfriend and Knight decided to later move onto his world travel plans. He headed to Japan and was heavily influenced by Zen Buddhism and focused on forgetting the self, non-linear thinking, simplicity, minimalism and being fully present
Knight met with a Japanese shoe manufacturer and won their business, representing them in the Western US. He described the tension between himself and the Japanese due to remnants from WWII
Our work is the holiest part of us
Greece was the highlight of the trip and the image of The Temple of Nike, the goddess of victory always stood out to Knight
The track coach at Oregon, Coach Bowerman, was a huge inspiration for Knight and was obsessed with shoes and continuously tried modifying, iterating and innovating them. His father and his coach were extremely stingy with praise and Knight sought their approval more than anything. Bowerman and Knight became partners in Knight’s new venture which he named Blue Ribbon. Phil got success rather quickly and though he was terrible at selling, he didn’t feel he was selling the shoes because he truly believed in them and in the good running can have on people
His mother was very athletic, a trackophile, quiet but very tough and very supportive of Phil. How he describes the quiet support from his mother is beautiful and inspiring
The art of competing is the art of forgetting, forgetting the pain, the competitor, the strategy, the self
Bowerman was an innovator. He focused as much on rest as training, he experimented with nutrition and electrolytes (predecessor to Gatorade), tore apart shoes, tried new materials (early polyurethane) and believed everyone with a body is an athlete
Was fascinated by shoguns, samurai, tycoons. Churchill, Kennedy and Tolstoy specifically
Knight took a job at PwC in case Blue Ribbon didn’t work out. “My life was totally out of balance but I didn’t care. I loved it. I wanted more imbalance. Or at least a different kind. I wanted to spend every minute working at Blue Ribbon…I wanted work to be play and I wanted what everyone wants, to be me full time.”
His first employee, Jeff Johnson, was selling prodigious amounts of shoes and created an office which aimed to be a runners paradise with books, comfortable seating, and inspiring images
The key to negotiations is to know what you want, what you need to leave feeling whole
Hired a lot of ex-runners, fanatics, whom were paid on commission. They worked like crazy because they believed in the vision
Phil spends a lot of time lost in his thoughts, going down mental wormholes, trying to figure out problems, was messy, spacey, competitive, laissez fair management to the point he was unresponsive
Once the business took off, Knight’s father was no longer so skeptical and in fact used him as a sounding board to hash through problems
Woodell’s parents loaned $8,000, their life’s savings, to Phil when the company had liquidity problems
The Japanese shoe manufacturer, Onitsuka, attempted a hostile takeover in 1971. Phil started looking for alternative manufacturers and found one in Mexico called Canada. The first shoes out of this factory were soccer cleats disguised as football cleats and was worn by Notre Dame’s QB
A shoe dog is somebody who is wholly devoted to the designing, buying, making, selling of shoes
Knight describes Bowerman as the Edison for shoes and athletics. There had been no true innovation in outer souls since the Great Depression but Bowerman soon came upon a rubberized and waffle-like sole which changed the industry forever
Blue Ribbon had always dealt honestly with their customers and salesman to the point that when they introduced the first Nike shoe, although the quality was suspect, the salesman believed Blue Ribbon when they said it was worth trying and that they’d improve over time. They got great sales right away and shows the power of dealing honestly with stakeholders
No matter the sport, no matter the endeavor, all out effort toils at people’s hearts. Was referring to Prefontaine in the American championships. The energy for ovation, passion and so forth from the crowd in this race exemplified exactly what Knight stood for and wanted his company to become. “Sports allow others to take part in and feel like they have lived at least a little in the life of others. Sports at its best allow the spirit of the fan to merge with the spirit of the athlete and this is the oneness that all great mystics discuss.”
It became apparent early on that to beat our competitors it was necessary to have the best athletes wearing the Nike swoosh. They got several Blazer basketball players early on as well as college and Olympic athletes. This soon evolved and they got world famous athletes such as Steve Prefontaine and Ilie Nastase and others. It is obvious how much pride Knight takes in his products to the point that he feels like he is living vicariously through his athletes and everyone of their victories is a little bit of a Nike victory as well
Nike was highly levered and had supplier issues for a long time and they soon decided that the best way to solve this issue was to work with the retailers and get a six-month commitment. This would help improve lead time and funding for operations, lowering their liquidity issues
Fear of failure would never be the reason the company went under. They had every expectation to fail but this would not hamper them from acting, deciding, telling the truth or doing whatever was necessary to make Nike as successful as possible
Blue Ribbon really took off once the waffle trainer was made. Another step change came when they introduced new colors and people began seeing it as not only an exercise shoe but as an everyday shoe as well. Soon after, Blue Ribbon re-incorporated under the Nike name
Everyone on the management team was a reject, a disappointment in some way and they were all trying to solve for it
Rob Strasser was one of the best negotiators because he didn’t care what he said or how he said it, he was totally honest. His negotiation skills were well used when dealing with the professors who came up with the shoe air injection process
They ran into issues with some of their shoe designs but customers forgave them because nobody else was trying anything new and Nike always apologized and did the right thing. Nike soon became a statement more than just a brand
For a long time Knight didn’t believe in advertising as he thought a great product would speak for itself
Knight and the exec team were very reluctant to go public but it soon became inevitable in order to fix their cash flow and leverage issues
When all you see is problems, you’re not seeing clearly
Adidas had the edge for a long time because their size allowed them to offer better deals to their professional athletes. Today, however, the tables have completely turned
Amazing to hear that more than a decade after Nike was started they were one of the most successful and fastest growing sports companies but were close to bankruptcy and had a burnt out and depressed management team
Nike became the first American company to do business with China in the early 1980s and ended up sponsoring the Chinese Olympic team
Phil spends a lot of time talking about his family, Penny and their two sons Matthew and Travis. Matthew died young in a scuba diving accident and Phil recounts his regret of not being a better and more present father
The sweat shop scandal was unjust but Nike used it as impetus to improve their factories and processes. They removed 97% of carcinogens by adapting a water based binding agent and gave it away to their competitors, eventually becoming the gold standard for factories. They also established The Girl Effect to help young women get out of poverty
What I got out of it
Prime example of how a business should be thought about – it was Knight’s calling. He wanted to be a source of good, help third world countries modernize and make athletes even greater. One of the better business books and biographies I’ve read in some time
Jewel’s background, obstacles overcome, beliefs and values all laid bare for the world to see. She hides nothing in this open account of her life
You must know what you want before you can achieve it. Jewel knew early on that what she wanted was happiness and this helped her during difficult times
Strength counter-intuitively comes from vulnerability and not armor
Nobody outruns their pain, they simply add new pain on top
Emotions and instincts are our most sophisticated alarm system
We learn emotional language from our parents and our surroundings. This language is often as important if not more important than regular language in shaping how we think, act and interact with others
Hard wood grows slowly. What doesn’t bend, breaks
Jewel had a tough upbringing in Alaska with a drunk and abusive father and an absent mother. She traveled with her father to sing in bars when she was very young. This was a difficult environment to grow up in but forced her to learn how to deal with people and difficult situations early on
To deal with the abuse from her father and her often dark surroundings, Jewel promised herself to always be honest in her journal and lyrics. This allowed her to cope and deal with her problems and see her behavior as separate from herself – allowing her to grow, mature and improve over time
Emotional honesty create loyalty and connection like nothing else
An artist’s most important asset is their individuality and they must discover this firsthand
Importance of silence in any pursuit cannot be overstated
Greatness is never achieved by trying to imitate the greatness of another. Greatness is achieved by chipping away at everything that does not belong to you and expressing yourself so authentically that everybody else is forced to acknowledge you
Jewel has a type of synesthesia where she can see notes in her mind and sees them overlap when in tune. She started researching physics and found a lot of similarities and correlations between science and art. Fractals exactly matched how she visualized notes
Change doesn’t come from grand gestures but many small, seemingly inconsequential ones. Catching your negativity before it spirals, slowly changing thinking habits
Dove deeply into her own psyche to explore her fear. She found it felt somewhat similar to nervousness before a show and decided to “flip” the fear into excitement
Helping others is ultimately helping yourself
Jewel was homeless for sometime in south California but soon developed a loyal following by singing in a local coffee shop. She eventually got one of her songs played on a radio station, broke into the top 10 and quickly gained wide recognition and an eventual label with Atlantic Records
Knowing that hard wood grows slowly, she turned down a $1m signing bonus but got the biggest back end deal of any artist, effectively betting on herself long term
Very intuitive and feel oriented in her shoes. Would read the crowds to determine what and how to play, never having a preconceived notion. Fan shaped auditoriums were the best to play in as everyone has a similar view and it focuses attention on stage
Fame makes people like a blank canvas where fans project their dreams and fantasies onto. Fame does not change you, it amplifies you
Her mom bankrupted her and it took a long time for Jewel to step up to her and get her out of her life
With her mom gone, Jewel took the difficult step of going within herself and trying to tease apart what was her moms belief which were pushed on her and what she truly believed. What was hers felt peaceful and other’s brought anxiety. L what is hysterical is historical
The goal with pain is to learn from it and let go
Be hyper vigilant and being aware of the voices in your head and how critical or mean they would seem if spoken out loud
Ty and Jewel got divorced a couple years after her son’s birth but remain on good terms. Her father is a big presence on her life now and extremely supportive
Only a closed heart can break
Continuously and ardently search out areas and situations where you feel self hatred and ask why you are feeling that way. Don’t hide from it. Address it and get to the root of it so you can begin healing
She beautifully describes how thoughtful and deliberate she is in raising her son, Case
Last ~20 pages distills Jewel’s lessons and the main points of the book
What I got out of it
Excellent book and inspiring story of a woman from Alaska who goes through many difficult times, goes deep within and overcomes many barriers. So thoughtful and brave and makes me want to better myself and be better at being thankful for all that I have in life
Katherine Graham, long time CEO of The Washington Post, recounts her story, her struggles and her rise to running this acclaimed newspaper
Never forget or underestimate the role of chance in your life
Parents had impossibly high standards but she receives good emotional support from parents where siblings didn’t
Father bought the Washington Post in an auction
Single most strengthening thing in her life was her fathers unconditional love and belief
It is much more fun to fight to get to the top to fight to keep at the top
Married Phil Graham in 1940 and he was adamant that if they married he wouldn’t accept any of her family’s money. He was able to cut through formality and connect with anyone, regardless of age, race, career, etc. Phil would soon join the Post anyway as Graham’s fathers deputy and soon take over the business. He worked so hard and put so much pressure on himself that he soon had a nervous breakdown. He worked closely with LBJ to pass the Civil Rights Act
Relationships work best when there is most equality
Katherine soon found out that Phil was having an affair
Phil committed suicide after a bout of depression in the family’s home. Katherine found him and that was one of the most traumatic experiences of her life. Sometimes you don’t decide, you simply move forward
Her friend gave her the confidence to believe that she could truly run the company after her husband died
She knew a lot about publishing but began learning the rest by nibbling at the edges, making many mistakes and learning from them. She had to overcome her insecurities and many ingrained assumptions about women which were prevalent at the time
The Post decided to go public in the early 1970s and Buffett bought about 10% of the company shortly after
The Pentagon Papers scandal quickly brought the post attention and credibility as it refused to stop publishing papers which were damaging to the government
The Post’s Woodward and Bernstein soon staged one of the most impressive investigative journalist efforts of all time in unlocking the Watergate Scandal. Graham’s courage and confidence during these times again propelled the Post to great national fanfare. A union strike soon destroyed some of the presses but Graham was able to quickly start printing again using other non union facilities. This was some of the most stressful times of her life and Buffett offered camaraderie at this time. He said he was looking for the tipping point of when she would lose the company for being down for too long
Katherine turned over the role of Publisher to her son Don so she could focus on CEO duties. She stepped down as CEO in 1991 and was considered one of the best CEOs in the country and the Post one of the most respected companies
What I got out of it
Amazing how Katherine was able to rise above her doubts, insecurities, stigmas around women, etc. in order to become one of the best CEOs in recent history!
The autobiography of Les Schwab, founder of the Les Schwab supermarket tire store – his background, philosophy and views on life and business
“I encourage you to share profits with your employees. I encourage you in every way possible to build people. If you do share, do it openly and honestly, and don’t get jealous if they start to make some money…that’s the whole idea. If you make people under you successful, what happens to you? Aren’t you also then successful? But if you think of yourself first, it just won’t work, and there’s no use attempting it. What nicer thing can you do with your life than to help young people build their lives into successful people, not just in money, but in all ways. The older I get the more proud I am of the profit sharing programs and other programs that I have created, or have helped to create. The best way to make it succeed is to share with people, to help people be successful people.”
Started with over 50% of the profits going to the manager and each store operates as its own, separate business and the store employees share only in the profits of the store they work in
Understood human nature, how to build trust and reciprocity with profit sharing program
Also established a mandatory retirement trust with 15% of one’s earnings going into it
Honesty clause – steal from the company and you lose everything you’ve saved in your trust
Being generous pays off more than you’ll ever need – unselfish for selfish reasons!
“I didn’t care about the money or who owned what, I just wanted to be successful”
It is quite simple. Greed destroys
Ardently believed that store managers and in-store employees were more important to the success of the company than the executives and paid them accordingly
“Pride in performance. Pride in accomplishments well done. But never confused pride with ego. Pride commits us to do the job better. Ego tricks us into believing we can do no wrong. Concentrate on being the best each day, one day at a time, putting the customer first, and treating employees with respect. These are the traits that create pride in performance. These are the traits that will keep us humble.”
Be honest with ourselves
Be hones with the people you work with. Be honest with your customer
Have a desire to learn
Tell the truth and have an open mind
Be a man of action. Make some mistakes as this is the only way to learn
Les had a tough family upbringing with little money, a drunk father and hard jobs (allowed him to see what the “bottom of the pyramid’s” world looks like
Learned to work with people, to organize and promote, the power of recognition, importance of hiring, never taking advantage of customers or employees, and the power of centralized production as a newspaper circulation manager. He later implemented every one of this into Les Schwab Tires
Learned early on to never get in over his head with debt
Growing too quickly is often a huge mistake people make. Slow down and organically grow into your sales
Importance of owning rather than leasing property (like Costco today)
Time to buy a lot is when it is vacant
Always wanted a 5 year lease with a 5 year option and the option to buy at the end of the lease
“We always keep the customer happy in the best way possible”
Importance of every day low pricing for everyone (Costco)
Velocity – had odd tires to deliver to customers immediately. He didn’t make a profit necessarily but he always made a customer
Fix flat tires for free for ladies. Even when made illegal, he continued to do it. No obvious, immediate profit but great goodwill and engendered loyalty – “we drove our competitors nuts”
Decided to turn warehouse into the showroom (Costco)
Complacency = death
So important to have deep fluency and to think for oneself
Most of his business dealings were simple handshake contracts
Had a vengeance for the big tire companies as they mistreated him poorly early on – importance of dealing fairly with every constituent
Life is hard for the man who thinks he can take shortcuts
“Success in my mind comes from having a successful business, one that is a good place to work, one that offers opportunity for people and one that you can be proud to own or be associated with. Success in life is being a good husband, a good father and you end up being a second father to hundreds of other men and women.”
I like to persuade people to do it my way. I don’t like to run the show myself. I like to work through people, and, unless you let them have almost the full power to make the final decision, you have a weak person working for you
Once he was a bit older, he took 3 months off per year and always came back with fresh ideas on how to run a better business
Set up policies for new stores which would help them get established by having old store help offset part of the costs of opening a new store
Didn’t want to be known for being the cheap tire salesman or the most expensive. Wanted to be somewhere in the middle but hist customer service had to beat everyone
Don’t be a “poor George” – a businessman who is not confident enough in his product or service, lowers the price at the customer’s request to the point that if he continued pricing this way, would eventually go out of business
Holding grudges hurts you more than anyone else
Whatever you do must be done with gusto and with volume
People aren’t natural born leaders. Leadership is learned and I can’t explain fully how it is learned
The decision making should always be made at the lowest possible level
One thing that drives people is need – need to belong, to feel appreciated, to win, to grow. Find out what your employees need
I’ve always wanted to be the best tire dealer, not necessarily the largest tire dealer
The general customer tends not to fully understand tires so of course they’re going to buy from someone they trust
What I got out of it
Growing people at the bottom of the business should be priority #1 for every company, open and honest communication is vital, establish profit sharing, keep decision-making at the bottom, total trust for everyone, don’t become a “poor George”
Harvey Firestone discusses some of his background, philosophy and business practices which helped him build one of the most successful companies of the early 20th century
The most difficult thing in business is to get yourself thinking and others thinking as well. Almost every man tries to avoid deep thought at any cost
You cannot dismiss the details and you must take regular time to think deeply
There must be one man at the top who has absolute authority for successful business to function properly
Knows intimately every detail about his company and his competition. He has very few friends and social obligations which he leaves him a lot of time to think deeply
The man with absolute authority should not really be called an executive but more of a strategist and deep thinker
Edison has so thoroughly trained his mind to deep thinking that he can go days without food or deviating from what he is working on
Honesty is the keystone of any successful business
The single function of any business is to provide people with a need or want
Thought and not money is the true driver of business success
Never rush in on a deal but let the deal come to you
Many times the true value of a business cannot be shown in numbers or on a balance sheet
You must be multidisciplinary and read a lot and interact with a wide variety of people
A product no matter how thoroughly thought out must always be tested and seasoned in the market
Firestone made a very nice business out of tires for carts and buggies. Soon after he sold the business for a very nice profit work for a small tire company but soon decided to start his own firm
Losing money in business is not alright if you can’t help yourself or if you don’t know why you’re losing it
A great salesman never intrudes and knows the fine line between pestering and persevering
Pay alone never brings and keeps together good men. It is the vision that does
Didn’t pay out a dividend initially even though early investors pressured him to. He put everything back into the company and bought back every stock he could – living as cheaply as possible just to have more money to buy back stock with
Consumers are always and will always be willing to pay up for quality. If you are worried that customers won’t buy if you raise prices, you might not have a superior product
No business can succeed if it is not continually revising its product – not only for the demands of today but also for the potential demands of tomorrow
There is always a better way of doing everything that that which is standard at the moment. It is a good thing for a man to be pushed into finding this better way
Firestone inked a big deal with Ford in 1906 to provide the tires for the new model Ford was putting out. This gave him several thousand captive customers and the partnership with Ford would yield many more over the years
Before hiring anyone, Firestone liked to talk to men in a general fashion to first understand what kind of person they are, what motivations they have and more about about their background. He will never bid a man away from his current job as this means the man is thinking more about the money than the job
The most important thing in business is working and planning ahead. You will always have emergencies but this way you’ll be better prepared. This is so self evident it’s a wonder it’s so neglected. The only danger lies in making plans so inflexible you can’t adapt but some plans can always be made and adapted as circumstances require. A plan which is too rigid may be worse than no plan at all
The management of one self, which gets down to managing ones own time and distinguishing the important from the unimportant, comes only from experience. Every man must work out his own rules and like every rule these must be flexible
Success is the sum of detail
The issue with prosperity is that it hides defects
Firestone believed he was not directly responsible for anything but was indirectly responsible for everything
Firestone had a rule for himself where he would only focus on one urgent thing at a time until he resolved that issue
The first question he asked self before anything is, “is it necessary?” Most often it is not and is simply a result of tradition or ritual. If something is necessary he then asks, “can this be simplified?”
It is poor and shortsighted business practice to work man too hard. It is Firestone’s policy to have good labor policies to pay above average wages, provide rewards and compensation above what any other company provides, foreman and managers a street all employees as trusting human beings
Ford and Edison or two of the brightest minds of all time and their fortunes allowed them to focus on helping humanity and they believed that the best way to do that was to set up systems and organizations which helped humanity help itself
Do not fail to try just because somebody else has tried and failed
He does not know if he is his businesses master or slave but ultimately it doesn’t matter as he enjoys what he’s doing. Business encompasses everything and is the ultimate life learning experience
What I got out of it
One of my favorite business books of all time. Read it 3 times in a row. Goes without saying I highly recommend